BK polyoma virus nephropathy in the native kidney.
While BK polyoma virus nephropathy (PVN) is a well-recognized cause of renal allograft dysfunction, PVN of native kidneys is likely under-recognized.Methods
We present the pathologic features, risk factors and outcomes of eight cases of PVN in native kidneys.ResultsThe cohort included eight males aged 16-73 years (mean 47.4) with an immunocompromised state (mean duration 3.15 years) attributable to: hematologic malignancies (n = 6), for which three had undergone bone marrow transplant; lung transplant (n = 1) and combined tuberculosis and diabetes (n = 1). Seven patients were receiving specific immunosuppressive therapies. Patients were biopsied for acute kidney injury (AKI) with rise in mean creatinine levels from baseline 1.6 to 2.8 mg/dL. Pathology showed BK PVN with characteristic intranuclear inclusions staining positive for SV40 T antigen and negative for JC virus (JCV), with positive serum and/or urine PCR for BK virus. One patient had focal medullary JCV co-infection. Two patients also had renal infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Six patients received specific therapy directed to PVN (cidofovir or leflunomide). Follow-up ranged from 2 to 20 (mean 10) months. Despite marked decrease in serum BK viral copy numbers, creatinine continued to rise in six cases (mean 3.7 mg/dL in four, requiring dialysis in two) and three patients died of malignancy, opportunistic infection or renal failure. Advanced histologic stage of PVN, ineffective antiviral therapy, co-morbidities and persistent immunocompromised state likely contributed to the poor outcomes.ConclusionA high level of suspicion in immunocompromised patients is needed to diagnose PVN in an early stage that may respond more favorably to antiviral therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) infects most people subclinically during childhood and establishes a lifelong infection in the renourinary tract. In most immunocompetent individuals, the infection is completely asymptomatic, despite frequent episodes of viral reactivation with shedding into the urine. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation followed by high-level viral replication can lead to severe disease: 1-10% of kidney transplant patients develop polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) and 5-15% of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients develop polyomavirus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis (PyVHC). Other conditions such as ureteric stenosis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia and vasculopathy have also been associated with BKPyV infection in immunocompromised individuals. Although BKPyV has been associated with cancer development, especially in the bladder, definitive evidence of a role in human malignancy is lacking. Diagnosis of PyVAN and PyVHC is mainly achieved by quantitative PCR of urine and plasma, but also by cytology, immunohistology and electron microscopy. Despite more than 40 years of research on BKPyV, there is still no effective antiviral therapy. The current treatment strategy for PyVAN is to allow reconstitution of immune function by reducing or changing the immunosuppressive medication. For PyVHC, treatment is purely supportive. Here, we present a summary of the accrued knowledge regarding BKPyV.Apmis 06/2013; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) are a growing challenge in immunocompromized patients in view of the increasing number of now 12 HPyV species and their diverse disease potential. Currently, histological evidence of disease is available for BKPyV causing nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, JCPyV causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and occasionally nephropathy, MCPyV causing Merkel cell carcinoma and TSPyV causing trichodysplasia spinulosa, two proliferative skin diseases. Here, the current role of HPyV in solid organ transplantation (SOT) was reviewed and recommendations regarding screening, monitoring and intervention were made. Pretransplant screening of SOT donor or recipient fro serostatus or active replication is currently not recommended for any HPyV. Posttransplant, however, regular clinical search for skin lesions including those associated with MCPyV or TSPyV is recommended in all SOT recipients. Also, regular screening for BKV replication e.g. by plasma viral load is recommended In kidney transplant recipients. For SOT patients with probable or proven HPyV disease, reducing immunosuppression should be considered to permit regaining of immune control. Antivirals would be desirable for treating proven HPyV disease, but are solely considered as adjunct local treatment of trichodysplasia spinulosa, whereas surgical resection and chemotherapy are key in Merkel cell carcinoma. Overall, the quality of the clinical evidence and the strength of most recommendations is presently limited, but is expected to be improving in the coming years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recipients of kidney transplants, the emergence of BK virus (BKV)-associated clinical syndromes, such as viruria, viremia, and BK nephropathy, coincided with the advent of potent immunosuppressive therapy. There is currently no standardized protocol for the management of BK viruria or viremia, or established BK nephropathy. Suggested risk factors for BKV replication and a literature overview on various treatment strategies for BKV-associated clinical syndromes are presented, followed by the authors' proposed approach for screening, monitoring, and treatment of post-transplant BKV infection.Current opinion in organ transplantation. 08/2014; 19(4):401-412.