A study on elemental contents of medicinally important species of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) found in Pakistan

Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 11/2010; 4(21):2256-2263.


Genus Artemisia is cosmopolitan in distribution and its several species are being used in folk therapeutic treatments worldwide. In this study, elemental compositions of seventeen indigenous species (A. scoparia, A. absinthium, A. indica, A. santolinifolia, A. maritime, A. vulgaris, A. japonica, A. nilagirica, A. herba-alba, A. annua, A. brevifolia, A. moorcroftiana, A. dracunculus, A. roxburghiana and A. dubia) that are commonly used against ailments in Pakistan were studied for the first time through atomic absorption spectrophotometry methods. In this study we observed nine trace elements namely Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb, Mn, Fe and four major elements that are K, Na, Ca and Mg in these species. Further it is observed that in few sepses the concentration of heavy metals are found over and above the normal concentration levels than the international safety standards prescribed for medicinal plants. This study also discusses the impacts of heavy metal toxicity in humans.

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Available from: Muhammad Qasim Hayat, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "Artemisia belongs to the most assorted genus of the family Asteraceae, consisting of over 500 species, with 38 species reported in Pakistan [1]. Various classes of secondary metabolites including oxygenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenolic hydrocarbons, polyacetylenes, furans, terpenes, flavonoids, coumarins and alkamides are reported from Artemisia [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A new compound (1) (named as artemceramide-B) together with eight known compounds (taraxerol (2), taraxerol acetate (3), β-sitosterol (4), stigmasterol (5), trans-ethyl caffeate, dracunculin (7), scoparone (8) and isoscopoletin (9) were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Artemisia incisa Pamp (Asteracae). The structures of the compounds were determined through IR, 1D NMR (1 H NMR, 13 C NMR) and 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC) analyses. Accurate mass analyses were done with EI-MS, ESI-MS and acid methanolysis of compound 1 followed by GS-MS studies. The relative stereochemistry of artemceramide-B was determined by comparing its specific rotation and spectroscopic data with the literature. Compounds 1-9 were tested for their anti-bacterial potential against five bacteria strains; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compound 1 (new) (MIC: 0.0157, 0.0313 mg/mL) and 7 (MIC: 0.0815, 1.000 mg/mL) showed excellent activities against S. epidermidis and S. aureus while compound 9 showed excellent activities (MIC: 0.0700, 1.234, 1.890 and 2.286 mg/mL) against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli, respectively. Compound 6 (MIC: 2.000 mg/mL) was found to be active against E. coli while neither of the compounds showed potential activity against B. subtilis.
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    ABSTRACT: Trace metals in eight different plants commonly available in South Africa, Kwazulu-Natal Province namely Gunnera perpensa, Pentanisia prunelloides, Carissa bispinosa, Ledebouria revoluta, Pomaria sandersonii, Eucomis autumnalis, Alepidea amatymbica, Artemisia afra and Berkheya setifera have been quantitatively analyzed using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. Medicinal plants were disinfected with 0.1% HgCl2 and digested with 95% H2SO4 and 35% H2O2. Six heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn) were chosen on the basis of their effects on human health. From the results of the study, all six heavy metals were present in all the plants, except that Pb was not detected in six of the plants. The highest level of Fe was observed in Gunnera perpensa at 1.12±0.003 ppm whilst the lowest level was found in Alepidea amatymbica at 0.0001±0.00 ppm±0.0005. The concentrations of Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn were all less than 1.5 ppm and the lead concentration in the water extract of Berkheya setifera was found to be high at 5.74±0.110 ppm but still falls below permissible limit of 10 ppm. The concentration of Cu was found to be 1.36±0.0021 ppm in Pomaria sandersonii and lowest in Gunnera perpensa at 1.24±0.002 ppm. The findings generally suggest that the use of these plant species for controlling diseases will not cause heavy metal toxicity and can be of good use to the users in cases of micronutrient deficiency.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2012; 11(9):757-761. DOI:10.3923/pjn.2012.855.859
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper deals with the extraction of some minerals (potassium, calcium and magnesium) from ground, dried aerial parts of white lady's bedstraw (Galium mollugo L.) using an aqueous ethanol solution (50% by volume) at different temperatures (from 23 to 40 °C) in the presence and absence of ultrasound. The main goal was to establish the kinetics and the thermodynamics of the two extraction processes. A phenomenological model involving simultaneous washing and diffusion was proved for both ultrasound-assisted and silent extraction of the minerals. The minerals extraction both in the presence and the absence of ultrasound is endothermic and irreversible since the enthalpy change and the entropy change are positive in the ranges of extraction temperature applied. The Gibbs free energy change for the extraction of minerals is negative, indicating that the process is feasible and spontaneous. The minerals yield increased by a factor of 1.02–1.06 and 1.14–1.27 in the absence and the presence of ultrasound, respectively for every 10 °C rise in temperature.
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