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    ABSTRACT: A juxtaposed microsatellite system (JMS) is composed of two microsatellite repeat arrays separated by a sequence of less than 200 bp and more than 20 bp. This paper presents the first empirical evaluation of JMSs for the study of genetic admixture induced by man, with brown trout (Salmo trutta) as model organism. Two distinct admixture situations were studied: native populations from streams of the Atlantic basin and of the Mediterranean basin, respectively, all stocked with domestic strains originating from the Atlantic basin. For these two situations, we first evaluated by simulation the ability of JMSs to differentiate between alien alleles and naturally shared homoplasious or ancestral alleles, and thus to behave as diagnostic markers for admixture. Simulations indicated that JMSs are expected to be reliable diagnostic markers in most divergent (i.e. Mediterranean) populations and nonreliable diagnostic markers in most closely related (i.e. Atlantic) populations. Three JMSs were genotyped in domestic strains as well as in nonstocked and stocked populations of brown trout sampled in different rivers of the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. The observed distributions of JMS haplotypes were consistent with simulation predictions confirming that JMSs were reliable diagnostic markers only over a given proportion of the species range, i.e. in substantially divergent populations. JMSs also reinforced the diagnostic character of three microsatellite sites for the studied Mediterranean populations. This last result is consistent with our simulation results which showed that, although much less frequently than at JMSs, diagnostic markers are likely to be found at single site microsatellites provided that the native Mediterranean population has a sufficiently small effective population size. For each population of the Mediterranean basin admixture coefficients did not differ significantly across JMSs and mean admixture coefficients sometimes differ among populations. The interpretation of the origin of JMS haplotypes based on the allele length variants was supported by nucleotide sequence analysis.
    Molecular Ecology 12/2000; 9(11):1873-86. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01099.x · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the utility of hypervariable microsatellite loci to measure genetic variability remaining in the northern hairy-nosed wombat, one of Australia's rarest mammals. This species suffered a dramatic range and population reduction over the past 120 years and now exists as a single colony of about 70 individuals at Epping Forest National Park, central Queensland. Because our preliminary research on mitochondrial DNA and multilocus DNA fingerprints did not reveal informative variation in this population, we chose to examine variation in microsatellite repeats, a class of loci known to be highly polymorphic in mammals. To assess the suitability of various wombat populations as a reference for comparisons of genetic variability and subdivision we further analysed mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence, using phylogenetic methods. Our results show that appreciable levels of variation still exist in the Epping Forest colony although it has only 41% of the heterozygosity shown in a population of a closely-related species. From museum specimens collected in 1884, we also assessed microsatellite variation in an extinct population of the northern hairy-nosed wombat, from Deniliquin, New South Wales, 2000 km to the south of the extant population. The apparent loss of variation in the Epping Forest colony is consistent with an extremely small effective population size throughout its 120-year decline.
    Molecular Ecology 09/1994; 3(4):277-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1994.tb00068.x · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellites, a special class of repetitive DNA, have become one of the most popular genetic markers. The progress of various genome projects has made it possible to study the genomic distribution of microsatellites and to evaluate the potential influence of several parameters on their genesis. We report the distribution of dinucleotide microsatellites in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. When considering only microsatellites with five or more repeat units, the average length of dinucleotide repeats in D. melanogaster is 6.7 repeats. We tested a wide range of parameters which could potentially influence microsatellite density, and we did not detect a significant influence of recombination rate, number of exons, or total length of coding sequence. In concordance with the neutral expectation for the origin of microsatellites, a significant positive correlation between AT content and (AT/TA)n microsatellite density was detected. While this pattern may indicate that microsatellite genesis is a random process, we also found evidence for a nonrandom distribution of microsatellites. Average microsatellite density was higher on the X chromosome, but extreme heterogeneity was observed between different genomic regions. Such a clumping of microsatellites was also evident on a more local scale, as 38.9% of the contiguous sequences analyzed showed a deviation from a random distribution of microsatellites.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 06/1999; 16(5):602-10. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026142 · 9.11 Impact Factor