Antisickling activity of anthocyanins from Bombax pentadrum, Ficus capensis and Ziziphus mucronata: Photodegradation effect

Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences B.P. 190 Kinshasa XI, Université de Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 10/2008; 120(3):413-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.09.012
Source: PubMed


A survey was conducted in Lubumbashi city (Democratic Republic of Congo) in order to: (a) identify medicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of sickle cell anaemia, (b) verify their antisickling activity in vitro, (c) determine the most active plants, and (d) verify if anthocyanins are responsible of the bioactivity and study their photodegradation effect.
The Emmel test was used in vitro, for the antisickling activity assays of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of different parts of these plants when a UV lamp and solar irradiations were used to induce the photodegradation effect.
The survey revealed that 13 medicinal plants are used in the treatment of drepanocytosis among which 12 plants exhibited the in vitro antisickling activity for at least one of the used parts or extracts. These plants are Bombax pentadrum, Bougainvillea sp., Byarsocarpus orientalis, Dalberigia bochmintaub, Diplorrhynbchus condolocarpus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Ficus capensis, Harungana madagascariensis, Parinari mobola, Pothmania witfchidii, Syzygium guineense, Temnocalys verdickii and Ziziphus mucronata of which four (Bombax pentadrum, Ficus capensis, Parinari mobola and Ziziphus mucronata) revealed a high antisickling activity. The biological activity of three of these plants is due to anthocyanins. The antisickling activity and photodegradation effect of anthocyanins extracts were studied and minimal concentration of normalization determined. The biological activity of Bombax pentadrum anthocyanins decreased to half of its value after 40 min of irradiation under a lamp emitting at a wavelength of 365 nm and after about 10h of solar irradiation. For Ziziphus mucronata and Ficus capensis, the antisickling activity decreased to half after about 6h under a lamp exposition and after about 50h of solar exposition.
In vitro Antisickling activity justifies the use of these plants by traditional healers and this activity would be due to anthocyanins. But these natural pigments are instable towards UV-Visible irradiations. The conservation of these plants should then be performed in a shield from the sun radiation.

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Available from: Jean-Paul Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Jun 18, 2014
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    • "basilicum), posses in vitro antisickling activity [5] [6] [9] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] . Those previous results showed that this activity could mainly be due to the presence of anthocyanins in the plants [2] [5] [6] [15] [16] [17] [20] [21] . Some molecules isolated from plants, including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, Zanthoxylol, betulinic acid ... have shown in vitro interesting activity against SCD [22] [23] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes many deaths particularly in tropical Africa. Congolese traditional healers use the decoction of Ocimum basilicum (aromatic herb) to treat sickle cell disease. The aim of this research was to perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L., to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Materials and methods: The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results: The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50g (11.5%) out of 300g of powdered leaves of Ocimum basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusion: The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from Ocimum basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 05/2014; 4(5):393-398. DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1329
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    • "basilicum), posses in vitro antisickling activity [5] [6] [9] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] . Those previous results showed that this activity could mainly be due to the presence of anthocyanins in the plants [2] [5] [6] [15] [16] [17] [20] [21] . Some molecules isolated from plants, including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, Zanthoxylol, betulinic acid ... have shown in vitro interesting activity against SCD [22] [23] . "

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    • "Medicinal plants used for the treatment of skin disorders in a rural community in northern Maputaland [11,18,19,21,35,36,39-42,56-85]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Skin diseases have been of major concern recently due to their association with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The study area (northern Maputaland) has the highest HIV infection rate in South Africa, which made them more prone to a wide range of skin conditions. Fungal infections due to the hot climate and overcrowding households are common in this area, as well as burn accidents due to the use of wood as the major fuel for cooking. It is known that the lay people in this area depend on medicinal plants for their primary health care. However no survey has been done in northern Maputaland to document the medicinal plants used to treat various skin disorder. Interviews were undertaken at 80 homesteads, using structured questionnaires. The focus was on plants used for dermatological conditions and information regarding vernacular plant names, plant parts used, preparation (independently and in various combinations) and application was collected. A total of 87 lay people, both male (22%) and female (78%) were interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat disorders of the skin. Forty-seven plant species from 35 families were recorded in the present survey for the treatment of 11 different skin disorders including abscesses, acne, burns, boils, incisions, ringworm, rashes, shingles, sores, wounds and warts. When searching the most frequently used scientific databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus and Pubmed), nine plant species (Acacia burkei, Brachylaena discolor, Ozoroa engleri, Parinari capensis, subsp. capensis, Portulacaria afra, Sida pseudocordifolia, Solanum rigescens, Strychnos madagascariensis and Drimia delagoensis) were found to be recorded for the first time globally as a treatment for skin disorders. Fourteen plant combinations were used. Surprisingly, the application of enema's was frequently mentioned. The preference of traditional medicine over allopathic medicine by most of the interviewees strengthens previous studies on the importance that traditional medicine can have in the primary health care system in this rural community. Studies to validate the potential of these plants independently and in their various combinations is underway to provide insight into the anti-infective role of each plant.
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