Antisickling activity of anthocyanins from Bombax pentadrum, Ficus capensis and Ziziphus mucronata: photodegradation effect.
ABSTRACT A survey was conducted in Lubumbashi city (Democratic Republic of Congo) in order to: (a) identify medicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of sickle cell anaemia, (b) verify their antisickling activity in vitro, (c) determine the most active plants, and (d) verify if anthocyanins are responsible of the bioactivity and study their photodegradation effect.
The Emmel test was used in vitro, for the antisickling activity assays of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of different parts of these plants when a UV lamp and solar irradiations were used to induce the photodegradation effect.
The survey revealed that 13 medicinal plants are used in the treatment of drepanocytosis among which 12 plants exhibited the in vitro antisickling activity for at least one of the used parts or extracts. These plants are Bombax pentadrum, Bougainvillea sp., Byarsocarpus orientalis, Dalberigia bochmintaub, Diplorrhynbchus condolocarpus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Ficus capensis, Harungana madagascariensis, Parinari mobola, Pothmania witfchidii, Syzygium guineense, Temnocalys verdickii and Ziziphus mucronata of which four (Bombax pentadrum, Ficus capensis, Parinari mobola and Ziziphus mucronata) revealed a high antisickling activity. The biological activity of three of these plants is due to anthocyanins. The antisickling activity and photodegradation effect of anthocyanins extracts were studied and minimal concentration of normalization determined. The biological activity of Bombax pentadrum anthocyanins decreased to half of its value after 40 min of irradiation under a lamp emitting at a wavelength of 365 nm and after about 10h of solar irradiation. For Ziziphus mucronata and Ficus capensis, the antisickling activity decreased to half after about 6h under a lamp exposition and after about 50h of solar exposition.
In vitro Antisickling activity justifies the use of these plants by traditional healers and this activity would be due to anthocyanins. But these natural pigments are instable towards UV-Visible irradiations. The conservation of these plants should then be performed in a shield from the sun radiation.
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ABSTRACT: ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: An ethno-botanical survey was conducted among traditional healers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo in order to identify plant species used in folk medicine to treat parasitic and infectious diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty traditional healers from different ethnic groups were interviewed about plants used in Congolese folk medicine to treat parasitic and infectious diseases in Kinshasa. Cited plants were collected and identified at Herbarium of the Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa. Their ecological status was also determined. RESULTS: Fifty plant species were collected out of which phanerophytes predominate (40 species). 78.7 percent of herbal remedies are prepared by aqueous decoction. 91. 2 percents of recipes are administered to patients by oral route. 58.0 percent of used medicinal plants are Guinean species. Stem bark is the most used part and Malaria and Amibiasis are the most treated diseases (56. 0%). Rubiaceae species were the most cited medicinal plants indicating high utility value of these species for the local community. CONCLUSION: Herbal remedies used against pathogenic organisms in Kinshasa, DR Congo are widely administered as aqueous decoctions. Chemical and pharmacological studies of some of these preparations are in progress and might lead to medically interesting anti-tropical diseases herbal remedies. Promoting ex-situ conservation of some of these medicinal plants endemic to DRC through in vitro cell culture will permit to conserve these biological resources.Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several plant extracts from Rutaceae family are currently used to the management of sickle cell disorder (SCD) in the African. Few reports have shown that extracts from Zanthoxyllum or Fagara genus demonstrated anti-sickling property. This study investigates the in vitro antisickling and antioxidant properties of extracts from Zanthoxyllum heitzii. The sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) was induced using sodium metabisulfite (2%) followed by treatment with extracts at different concentrations. The osmotic fragility tests permits to explore the effect of Z. heitzii extracts on haemoglobin S solubility and sickle cells membrane stability. For each extract, qualitative phytochemical tests were used to identify the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and phenols, while some quantitative methods such as Folin, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and diphenyl 1, 2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) were used to determine the antioxidant potential of these extracts. Sodium metabisulphite increased the sickling of RBCs from 29.62 to 55.46% during 2 h. Treatment of sickling cells with extracts at different concentrations showed that a decrease of the percentage of sickling cells was found in both induced and non induced sickling cells. The fruits extract of Z. heitzii demonstrated the best anti-sickling property. The same extract at 250 mug/mL showed the best membrane cell stability compared to others. All the extracts revealed an antioxidant and anti-radical activities although lesser compared to the standard. The fruit extract of Z. Heitzii demonstrated the most significant antisickling effect with a potential for use in the clinical management of SCD.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2013; 13(1):162. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Skin diseases have been of major concern recently due to their association with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The study area (northern Maputaland) has the highest HIV infection rate in South Africa, which made them more prone to a wide range of skin conditions. Fungal infections due to the hot climate and overcrowding households are common in this area, as well as burn accidents due to the use of wood as the major fuel for cooking. It is known that the lay people in this area depend on medicinal plants for their primary health care. However no survey has been done in northern Maputaland to document the medicinal plants used to treat various skin disorder. Interviews were undertaken at 80 homesteads, using structured questionnaires. The focus was on plants used for dermatological conditions and information regarding vernacular plant names, plant parts used, preparation (independently and in various combinations) and application was collected. A total of 87 lay people, both male (22%) and female (78%) were interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat disorders of the skin. Forty-seven plant species from 35 families were recorded in the present survey for the treatment of 11 different skin disorders including abscesses, acne, burns, boils, incisions, ringworm, rashes, shingles, sores, wounds and warts. When searching the most frequently used scientific databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus and Pubmed), nine plant species (Acacia burkei, Brachylaena discolor, Ozoroa engleri, Parinari capensis, subsp. capensis, Portulacaria afra, Sida pseudocordifolia, Solanum rigescens, Strychnos madagascariensis and Drimia delagoensis) were found to be recorded for the first time globally as a treatment for skin disorders. Fourteen plant combinations were used. Surprisingly, the application of enema's was frequently mentioned. The preference of traditional medicine over allopathic medicine by most of the interviewees strengthens previous studies on the importance that traditional medicine can have in the primary health care system in this rural community. Studies to validate the potential of these plants independently and in their various combinations is underway to provide insight into the anti-infective role of each plant.Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 07/2013; 9(1):51. · 2.42 Impact Factor