Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections in Antenatal Hydronephrosis
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) is recommended to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in newborns with antenatal hydronephrosis (HN). However, there is a paucity of high-level evidence supporting this practice. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic evaluation to determine the value of CAP in reducing the rate of UTIs in this patient population.METHODS:Pertinent articles and abstracts from 4 electronic databases and gray literature, spanning publication dates between 1990 and 2010, were included. Eligibility criteria included studies of children <2 years old with antenatal HN, receiving either CAP or not, and reporting on development of UTIs, capturing information on voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) result and HN grade. Full-text screening and quality appraisal were conducted by 2 independent reviewers.RESULTS:Of 1681 citations, 21 were included in the final analysis (N = 3876 infants). Of these, 76% were of moderate or low quality. Pooled UTI rates in patients with low-grade HN were similar regardless of CAP status: 2.2% on prophylaxis versus 2.8% not receiving prophylaxis. In children with high-grade HN, patients receiving CAP had a significantly lower UTI rate versus those not receiving CAP (14.6% [95% confidence interval: 9.3-22.0] vs 28.9% [95% confidence interval: 24.6-33.6], P < .01). The estimated number needed to treat to prevent 1 UTI in patients with high-grade HN was 7.CONCLUSIONS:This systematic review suggests value in offering CAP to infants with high-grade HN, however the impact of important variables (eg, gender, reflux, circumcision status) could not be assessed. The overall level of evidence of available data is unfortunately moderate to low.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The laparoscopically-assisted anorectal pull-through (LAARP) for recto-bladderneck and recto-prostatic anorectal malformations (RB/RP-ARMs) is believed to improve patient outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the effect of LAARP on postoperative mucosal prolapse and defecation dysfunction. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and grey literature was performed (2000-2014). Full-text screening, data abstraction and quality appraisal were conducted in duplicate. Included studies reported a primary diagnosis of RB/RP-ARM and compared LAARP versus open repair (OPEN). From 3681 retrieved articles, 7 studies enrolling 187 patients were analyzed. One was a randomized control trial, 6 were retrospective observational studies, and all were single-centre. The majority were of poor-moderate quality (MINORS scores: mean 16.42 (SD 2.225) out of 24). Mucosal prolapse was not significantly different after LAARP versus OPEN (p = 0.18). Defecation outcomes were inconsistently reported but were no different between LAARP and OPEN for either children > 3 years old (p = 0.84), or all ages combined (p = 0.11). We found no significant difference in rates of mucosal prolapse or defecation scores for LAARP compared to OPEN for children with RB/RP-ARMs. However, studies are small and of poor-moderate quality and results are heterogeneous. Comprehensive, standardized, reliable reporting is necessary to guide practice and inform postoperative guidelines.Pediatric Surgery International 10/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s00383-014-3626-3 · 1.06 Impact Factor
Journal of Pediatric Urology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2014.10.001 · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Urinary tract (UT) dilation is sonographically identified in 1–2% of fetuses and reflects a spectrum of possible uropathies. There is significant variability in the clinical management of individuals with prenatal UT dilation that stems from a paucity of evidence-based information correlating the severity of prenatal UT dilation to postnatal urological pathologies. The lack of correlation between prenatal and postnatal US findings and final urologic diagnosis has been problematic, in large measure because of a lack of consensus and uniformity in defining and classifying UT dilation. Consequently, there is a need for a unified classification system with an accepted standard terminology for the diagnosis and management of prenatal and postnatal UT dilation.Journal of Pediatric Urology 11/2014; 10(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2014.10.002 · 1.41 Impact Factor