The Relationship Between Cow's Milk and Stores of Vitamin D and Iron in Early Childhood
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:To examine the association between cow's milk intake on both vitamin D and iron stores in healthy urban preschoolers.METHODS:Healthy children 2 to 5 years of age were recruited from December 2008 through December 2010 through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network. Cow's milk intake was measured by parental report. Vitamin D and iron stores were measured by using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and ferritin. Bivariate multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of cow's milk intake simultaneously on 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum ferritin. Analyses were stratified by important clinical variables including skin pigmentation, bottle feeding, vitamin D supplementation, and season.RESULTS:Among 1311 children, increasing cow's milk consumption was associated with decreasing serum ferritin (P < .0001) and increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P ≤ .0001). Two cups (500 mL) of cow's milk per day maintained 25-hydroxyvitamin D >75 nmol/L with minimal negative effect on serum ferritin for most children. Children with darker skin pigmentation not receiving vitamin D supplementation during the winter required 3 to 4 cups of cow's milk per day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin D >75 nmol/L. Cow's milk intake among children using a bottle did not increase 25-hydroxyvitamin D and resulted in more dramatic decreases in serum ferritin.CONCLUSIONS:There is a trade-off between increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D and decreasing serum ferritin with increasing milk intake. Two cups of cow's milk per day appears sufficient to maintain healthy vitamin D and iron stores for most children. Wintertime vitamin D supplementation was particularly important among children with darker skin pigmentation.
- SourceAvailable from: Ariana Anderson
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- "Differences in white matter and cognition among older children may be attributable to an entirely different dairy product altogether: cow's milk. It is advised that formula fed infants transition to cow's milk at 12 months, receiving 16 ounces per day thereafter (Committee on Nutrition, 1992; Maguire et al., 2013). White matter differences were not observed until children were over 26 months of age, when the " formula fed " groups would actually have been exposed to cow's milk longer than they had been exposed to formula. "
ABSTRACT: The recent Deoni et al. (2013) manuscript proposed that breastfeeding was associated with increased cognitive ability and white-matter in older children (over 26 months), using ms-DESPOT MRI imaging to indirectly measure white matter in children who were either breastfed, formula fed, or combined breast + formula fed. In this response, we identify limitations in drawing causal inference among white matter, cognitive ability, and breastfeeding. We propose that the observed cognitive and neurodevelopmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants might actually be caused by the premature introduction of cow's milk in the second year of life, among other contributing factors.NeuroImage 05/2014; 100. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.011 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aboriginal peoples affected by a nutrition transition and living at high latitudes are among the ethnic groups most at risk of vitamin D deficiency. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of meeting predefined cut-off concentrations of vitamin D and to examine associated factors among James Bay Cree aged ³15 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of May and September from 2005 to 2009. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Anthropometrics were measured and additional information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits was obtained using questionnaires. A logistic regression model predicting vitamin D insufficiency (<50 nmol/L) included known covariates. Data were obtained from 944 Cree (406 men (43%); mean age 37.4 years), with an effective participation rate of 49% among women and 41% among men. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L) by gender were 52.9 (95% CI 51.4-54.5) in men and 47.5 (95% CI 46.2-48.9) in women, and by age group were 46.0 (95% CI 44.9-48.9) in those 15-39 years and 59.6 (95% CI 57.9-61.4) in those ³40 years of age. Overall, 5.8%, 42.6%, 40.0%, and 11.7% of the participants had 25(OH)D concentrations <30, 30-49.9, 50-74.9 and ³75 nmol/L, respectively. Female gender, obesity, younger age, spring, low fish and milk intake, and low vigorous physical activity predicted vitamin D insufficiency (all p<0.05). The vitamin D status in Eastern James Bay Cree is suboptimal with nearly half of the population having insufficient concentrations for optimum bone health.01/2013; 104(4):e291-7.
- Nature Reviews Endocrinology 01/2013; 9. DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2013.1 · 12.96 Impact Factor