Prognosis Among Healthy Individuals Discharged With a Primary Diagnosis of Syncope
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the risk of major cardiac adverse events and death in a nationwide cohort of patients without previous comorbidity admitted for syncope. BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common clinical event, but knowledge of prognosis is not fully elucidated in healthy individuals. METHODS: Patients without previous comorbidity admitted for syncope in Denmark from 2001 to 2009 were identified in nationwide administrative registries and matched by sex and age with 5 control subjects from the Danish population. The risk of death or recurrent syncope, implantation of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and cardiovascular hospitalization were analyzed with multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 37,017 patients with a first-time diagnosis of syncope and 185,085 control subjects; their median age was 47 years (interquartile range, 32 to 63 years) and 47% were male. A total of 3,023 (8.2%) and 14,251 (7.1%) deaths occurred in the syncope and the control population, respectively, yielding an event rate of 14.3 per 1,000 person-years (PY) in the syncope population. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.10), cardiovascular hospitalization event rate of 26.5 per 1,000 PY (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.68 to 1.80), recurrent syncope event rate of 45.1 per 1,000, stroke event rate of 6.8 per 1,000 PY (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.27 to 1.44), and pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator event rate of 4.2 per 1,000 PY (HR: 5.52; 95% CI: 4.67 to 5.73; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The first admission for syncope among healthy individuals significantly predicts the risk of all-cause mortality, stroke, cardiovascular hospitalization, device implantation, and recurrent syncope.
SourceAvailable from: Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Syncope is a common medical problem, with a frequency between 15% and 39%. In the general population, the annual number episodes are 18.1 to 39.7 per 1000 patients, with similar incidence between genders. The first report of the incidence of syncope is 6.2 per 1000 person-years. However, there is a significant increase in the incidence of syncope after 70 years of age with rate annual 19.5 per thousand individuals after 80 years. It presents a recurrence rate of 35% and 29% of physical injury. Among the causes of syncope, the mediated neural reflex, known as neurocardiogenic or vasovagal syncope, is the most frequent. The others are of cardiac origin, orthostatic hypotension, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, neurological and endocrinological causes and psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of syncope can be made by clinical method associated with the electrocardiogram in up 50% of patients. Its prognosis is determined by the underlying etiology specifically the presence and severity of cardiac disease. The annual mortality can reach between 18 and 33% if cardiac cause, and between 0 and 12% if the noncardiac cause. Thus, it is imperative to identify its cause and risk stratification for positive impact in reducing morbidity and mortality.Frontiers in Physiology 11/2014; 5:451. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00471
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ABSTRACT: Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management.This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.Acta cardiologica 04/2014; 69(2):222-34. DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304592 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The Group for Syncope Study in the Emergency Room (GESINUR) was a Spanish multicenter, prospective, observational study that evaluated the clinical presentation and acute management of loss of consciousness in Spain. Several studies have shown that an abnormal ECG is a poor prognostic factor in patients with syncope. However, the prognostic significance of each ECG abnormality is not well known. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to study the association between specific ECG abnormalities and mortality in patients with syncope from the GESINUR study. METHODS All patients in the GESINUR study who had syncope and had available, readable ECG and 12-month follow-up data were included in this retrospective observational study (n = 524, age 57 +/- 22 years, 50.6% male). ECG abnormalities were analyzed and assessed to evaluate whether an association with all-cause mortality existed at 12 months. RESULTS ECGs were classified as abnormal in 344 patients (65.6%). Thirty-three patients died during follow-up (6.3%), but only 1 due to sudden cardiovascular death. Atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR] 6.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-16.3, P <.001), intraventricular conduction disturbances (OR 3.8, 950(0 CI 1.7-8.3, P =.001), Left ventricular hypertrophy ECG criteria (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.5-26.3, P =.011), and ventricular pacing (OR 21.8, 95% CI 4.1-115.3, P <.001) were the only independent ECG predictors of allcause mortality. CONCLUSION Although an abnormal ECG in patients with syncope is a common finding, only the presence of atrial fibrillation, intraventricular conduction disturbances, left ventricular hypertrophy ECG criteria, and ventricular pacing is associated with 1-year all-cause mortality.Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 06/2014; 11(11). DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.06.037 · 4.92 Impact Factor