[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study introduces methods for estimating the cost of liver disease and presents useful and reliable sources of data. The available evidence on the costs associated with liver disease is also discussed.
Costing methodology can be used to identify, measure, and value relevant resources incurred during the care of patients with liver diseases. It adjusts for discounting, skewed distribution, and missing or censored cost data. The human capital approach for productivity cost assumes that deceased patients would have lived to a normal expected life expectancy, and have earned a salary in line with the current age profile of wages, in order to measure potential earnings lost due to premature death or job loss.
The number of deaths due to liver cancer (C22) increased from 6,384 in 1983 to 11,405 in 2013, while deaths due to other liver diseases (K70-K76) increased from 12,563 in 1983 to 13,458 in 1995, and then declined to 6,665 in 2013. According to the Global Burden of Disease study conducted by the World Health Organization, liver cancer caused 325,815 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and cirrhosis of the liver caused 206,917 DALYs in 2012. The total cost of liver disease was estimated at 1,941 billion Korean won in 2001 and 5,689 billion Korean won in 2008. Much of this cost is attributable to productivity cost, and especially that of economically active men.
The economic burden of liver disease is immense because of the associated high mortality and morbidity, especially among the economically active population. This indicates the need to prioritize the development of appropriate health interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Globally, diarrhoea is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality, responsible for the annual loss of about 10% of the total global childhood disease burden. In Tanzania, Rotavirus infection is the major cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal mortality in children under five years. Immunisation can reduce the burden, and Tanzania added rotavirus vaccine to its national immunisation programme in January 2013. This study explores the cost effectiveness of introducing rotavirus vaccine within the Tanzania Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI).
We quantified all health system implementation costs, including programme costs, to calculate the cost effectiveness of adding rotavirus immunisation to EPI and the existing provision of diarrhoea treatment (oral rehydration salts and intravenous fluids) to children. We used ingredients and step down costing methods. Cost and coverage data were collected in 2012 at one urban and one rural district hospital and a health centre in Tanzania. We used Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) as the outcome measure and estimated incremental costs and health outcomes using a Markov transition model with weekly cycles up to a five-year time horizon.
The average unit cost per vaccine dose at 93% coverage is US$ 8.4, with marked difference between the urban facility US$ 5.2; and the rural facility US$ 9.8. RV1 vaccine added to current diarrhoea treatment is highly cost effective compared to diarrhoea treatment given alone, with incremental cost effectiveness ratio of US$ 112 per DALY averted, varying from US$ 80–218 in sensitivity analysis. The intervention approaches a 100% probability of being cost effective at a much lower level of willingness-to-pay than the US$609 per capita Tanzania gross domestic product (GDP).
The combination of rotavirus immunisation with diarrhoea treatment is likely to be cost effective when willingness to pay for health is higher than USD 112 per DALY. Universal coverage of the vaccine will accelerate progress towards achievement of the child health Millennium Development Goals.
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