GBD 2010: Design, definitions, and metrics

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA. Electronic address: .
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 12/2013; 380(9859):2063-6. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61899-6
Source: PubMed
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    • "The YLD of lifelong injury were calculated by multiplying the number of patients (in an age/gender/injury group) with lifelong injury with the corresponding disability weight and duration. Age weights or discounting were not applied in the calculations, because this practice is controversial (Anand and Hanson 1997; Murray et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries (RTI) are increasingly adopted by policy makers as an indicator of traffic safety. However, it is not agreed upon which level of severity should be used as cut-off point for assessing road safety performance. Internationally, within road safety, injury severity is assessed by means of the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS). The choice for a severity cut-off point highly influences the measured disease burden of RTI. This paper assesses the burden of RTI in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) by hospitalization status and MAIS cut-off point in the Netherlands. Methods: Hospital discharge register (HDR) and emergency department (ED) data for RTI in the Netherlands were selected for the years 2007-2009, as well as mortality data. The incidence, years lived with disability (YLD), years of life lost (YLL) owing to premature death, and DALYs were calculated. YLD for admitted patients was subdivided by MAIS severity levels. Results: RTI resulted in 48,500 YLD and 27,900 YLL respectively, amounting to 76,400 DALYs per year in the Netherlands. The largest proportion of DALYs is related to fatalities (37%), followed by admitted MAIS 2 injuries (25%), ED treated injuries (16%) and admitted MAIS 3+ injuries (18%). Admitted MAIS 1 injuries only account for a small fraction of DALYs (4%). In the Netherlands, the diseases burden of RTI is highest among cyclists with 39% of total DALYs. One half of all bicycle related DALYs are attributable to admitted MAIS 2+ injuries, but ED treated injuries also account for a large proportion of DALYs in this group (28%). Car occupants are responsible for 26% of all DALYs, primarily caused by fatalities (66%), followed by admitted MAIS 2+ injuries (25%). ED treated injuries only account for 5% of DALYs in this group. Conclusions: When using admitted MAIS 3+ or admitted MAIS 2+ as severity cut-off point, 54% and 80% of all DALYs are captured respectively. Assessing the influence of different severity cut-off points by MAIS on the proportion and number of DALYs captured gives valuable information for guiding choices on the definition of serious RTI.
    Accident; analysis and prevention 04/2015; 80:193-200. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2015.04.013 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Migraine is ranked the 19th among the causes of years lived with disability [1]. According to the Global Burden of Disease report [6], migraine is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and can cause significant social, economic, and personal burdens [7]. According to the WHO, disability is considered to be the impact of any disease or pathological condition on an individual's ability to work and function in various settings and roles [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version (MIDAS-M) of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire. Methods: Patients having migraine for more than six months attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, were recruited. Standard forward and back translation procedures were used to translate and adapt the MIDAS questionnaire to produce the Bahasa Melayu version. The translated Malay version was tested for face and content validity. Validity and reliability testing were further conducted with 100 migraine patients (1st administration) followed by a retesting session 21 days later (2nd administration). Results: A total of 100 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were recruited. The majority of the patients were single (66%) and students (46%). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.84 (1st administration) and 0.80 (2nd administration). The test-retest reliability for the total MIDAS score was 0.73, indicating that the MIDAS-M questionnaire is stable; for the five disability questions, the test-retest values ranged from 0.77 to 0.87. Conclusion: The MIDAS-M questionnaire is comparable with the original English version in terms of validity and reliability and may be used for the assessment of migraine in clinical settings.
    BioMed Research International 07/2014; Volume 2014:Article ID 435856. DOI:10.1155/2014/435856 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Data were gathered from all known sources of VS, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Mortality Database, the United Nations Demographic Yearbook, individual publications from national ministries of health, and other sources [22]. Each country was categorized into one of seven mutually exclusive epidemiologic regions, which were previously defined for the GBD [23]. A more complete description of the underlying database for GBD can be found elsewhere [21,22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Timely and reliable data on causes of death are fundamental for informed decision-making in the health sector as well as public health research. An in-depth understanding of the quality of data from vital statistics (VS) is therefore indispensable for health policymakers and researchers. We propose a summary index to objectively measure the performance of VS systems in generating reliable mortality data and apply it to the comprehensive cause of death database assembled for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 Study. Methods We created a Vital Statistics Performance Index, a composite of six dimensions of VS strength, each assessed by a separate empirical indicator. The six dimensions include: quality of cause of death reporting, quality of age and sex reporting, internal consistency, completeness of death reporting, level of cause-specific detail, and data availability/timeliness. A simulation procedure was developed to combine indicators into a single index. This index was computed for all country-years of VS in the GBD 2013 cause of death database, yielding annual estimates of overall VS system performance for 148 countries or territories. Results The six dimensions impacted the accuracy of data to varying extents. VS performance declines more steeply with declining simulated completeness than for any other indicator. The amount of detail in the cause list reported has a concave relationship with overall data accuracy, but is an important driver of observed VS performance. Indicators of cause of death data quality and age/sex reporting have more linear relationships with simulated VS performance, but poor cause of death reporting influences observed VS performance more strongly. VS performance is steadily improving at an average rate of 2.10% per year among the 148 countries that have available data, but only 19.0% of global deaths post-2000 occurred in countries with well-performing VS systems. Conclusions Objective and comparable information about the performance of VS systems and the utility of the data that they report will help to focus efforts to strengthen VS systems. Countries and the global health community alike need better intelligence about the accuracy of VS that are widely and often uncritically used in population health research and monitoring.
    Population Health Metrics 05/2014; 12(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1478-7954-12-14 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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