GBD 2010: A multi-investigator collaboration for global comparative descriptive epidemiology

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA. Electronic address: .
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 12/2013; 380(9859):2055-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62134-5
Source: PubMed
25 Reads
  • Source
    • "Dental caries continues to be a major public health problem and one of the conditions with the highest prevalence worldwide (Bagramian et al. 2009), affecting more than one-third of the population at all ages (Murray et al. 2012). Besides the obvious detriment to oral health, dental caries compromises quality of life (Scarpelli et al. 2013) and it is the main oral cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) (Murray et al. 2012). Given the high prevalence and its negative consequences for the population , new approaches to cope with the disease are required. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: To assess the anticaries activity of an antioxidant-rich apple concentrate (ARAC) in an experimental biofilm caries model on enamel. Methods and results: A validated caries model with Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms was used. Biofilms were formed on enamel slabs during 5 days. To mimic cariogenic challenges, triplicate slabs were exposed three times per day for 5 min to 10% sucrose followed by five additional minutes of exposure to serial dilutions of ARAC in 0·9% NaCl. A triplicate slab exposed to 10% sucrose followed by 0·9% NaCl served as caries-positive control. Acidogenicity was estimated by medium pH twice per day. After the experimental phase, biofilms were recovered to determine biomass, viable bacteria and intra- and extracellular polysaccharides. Slabs were used to estimate demineralization by the percentage of surface microhardness loss (%SHL). Differences among treatments were analysed by anova and Bonferroni test (P < 0·05). Streptococcus mutans biofilms were exposed to ARAC after a cariogenic challenge with sucrose-induced lower enamel demineralization than the positive control. The highest dilution of ARAC at 1 : 100 000 (v/v) showed the most marked reduction in demineralization of about 57%. Although no differences were observed in the number of bacterial cells, the intracellular polysaccharides or in the biomass (P > 0·05), the highest dilution of the apple concentrate induced significantly lower extracellular polysaccharide formation by the biofilm. Conclusions: An apple concentrate in low concentrations appears to have a potential anticaries activity on enamel. Data suggest a metabolic rather than an antimicrobial mechanism, but further research is needed. Significance and impact of the study: Phenolic compounds contained in apple concentrates seem to have anticaries properties that may be effective even in the presence of sucrose and in very low doses. Nutritional interventions that do not require rescinding from sucrose might be derived from these findings.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 06/2014; 117(3). DOI:10.1111/jam.12561 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "With an increasing globalization in both the transmission of infectious diseases and also the opportunities for institutions to collaborate across borders, there is an increasing need for global data. The Global Burden of Disease Study32 illustrates the usefulness of such collaborations and Policy Cures shows how an international approach to obtaining neglected disease funding can be applied. There is a need for funders from other countries to provide similarly detailed information of funded studies, in order to build a global database of projects. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the level of research funding awarded to UK institutions specifically for antimicrobial resistance-related research and how closely the topics funded relate to the clinical and public health burden of resistance. Databases and web sites were systematically searched for information on how infectious disease research studies were funded for the period 1997-2010. Studies specifically related to antimicrobial resistance, including bacteriology, virology, mycology and parasitology research, were identified and categorized in terms of funding by pathogen and disease and by a research and development value chain describing the type of science. The overall dataset included 6165 studies receiving a total investment of £2.6 billion, of which £102 million was directed towards antimicrobial resistance research (5.5% of total studies, 3.9% of total spend). Of 337 resistance-related projects, 175 studies focused on bacteriology (40.2% of total resistance-related spending), 42 focused on antiviral resistance (17.2% of funding) and 51 focused on parasitology (27.4% of funding). Mean annual funding ranged from £1.9 million in 1997 to £22.1 million in 2009. Despite the fact that the emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens our future ability to treat many infections, the proportion of the UK infection-research spend targeting this important area is small. There are encouraging signs of increased investment in this area, but it is important that this is sustained and targeted at areas of projected greatest burden. Two areas of particular concern requiring more investment are tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 02/2014; 69(2):548-554. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkt349 · 5.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Following decades of advocacy, the United Nations finally recognized hemoglobinopathies as a public health problem in 2006 [United Nations, 2008; World Health Organization, 2006]. These disorders have also been included in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010, as part of the Non-Communicable Diseases Cluster [Murray et al., 2012]. In parallel with this growing awareness, epidemiological evidence, supported by genetic studies, is increasingly needed by Ministries of Health and public health organizations to implement appropriate policies. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Warnings about the expected increase of the global public health burden of malaria-related red cell disorders are accruing. Past and present epidemiological data are necessary in order to track spatial and temporal changes in the frequencies of these genetic disorders. A number of open access biomedical databases including data on malaria-related red cell disorders have been launched over the last two decades. Here, we review the content of these databases, most of which focus on genetic diversity, and we describe a new epidemiological resource developed by the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP). In order to tackle upcoming public health challenges, the integration of epidemiological and genetic data is important. As many countries are considering implementing national screening programs, strategies to make such data more accessible are also needed.
    Human Mutation 07/2013; 34(7):937-944. DOI:10.1002/humu.22330 · 5.14 Impact Factor
Show more