We present a case in which endometriotic lesions were observed to be focally hemorrhagic at laparoscopy performed during menstruation. Red vesicular lesions likely represent early disease with intact capacity for hormonally induced menstrual bleeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in a baboon model to determine if a thiazolidinedione agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, pioglitazone, can impede the development of endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced using laparoscopic, intrapelvic injection of eutopic menstrual endometrium, previously incubated with placebo or pioglitazone for 30 min, in 12 female baboons with a normal pelvis that had undergone at least one menstrual cycle since the time of captivity. At this point, the 12 baboons were randomized into two groups and treated from the day of induction. They received either PBS tablets (n = 6, placebo control, placebo tablets once a day by mouth) or pioglitazone (n = 6, test drug, 7.5 mg by mouth each day). A second and final laparoscopy was performed in the baboons to record the extent of endometriotic lesions between 24 and 42 d after induction (no difference in length of treatment between the two groups, P = 0.38). A videolaparoscopy was performed to document the number and surface area of endometriotic lesions. The surface area and volume of endometriotic lesions were significantly lower in pioglitazone treated baboons than the placebo group (surface area, 48.6 vs. 159.0 mm(2), respectively, P = 0.049; vol, 23.7 vs. 131.8 mm(3), respectively, P = 0.041). The surface area (3.5 vs. 17.8 mm(2), P = 0.017, pioglizatone vs. placebo) and overall number (1.5 vs. 9.5, P = 0.007, pioglizatone vs. placebo) of red lesions were lower in the pioglitazone group. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, pioglitazone, effectively reduced the initiation of endometriotic disease in the baboon endometriosis model. Using this animal model, we have shown that thiazolidinedione is a promising drug for preventive treatment of endometriosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various theories try to explain the development and progression of endometriosis, however, no single theory can explain all aspects of this disorder. Gene expression profiling studies might reveal factors that explain variability in disease development and progression, which can serve as specific biomarkers for endometriosis and novel drug development. We have recently showed that the upregulated genes were predominantly clustered in stress and detoxification, providing a mechanistic explanation for the oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory response in endometriosis.
This review aims: (1) to analyse the published data, with the aim of identifying pathways consistently regulated by the endometriosis genotype and (2) to summarise the findings of specific genes, which are involved in the process of oxidative stress and inflammation.
We identified gene array and proteomics studies whose data were accessible in PubMed.
A major finding is the increased expressions of several markers including heat shock protein, S100, fibronectin, and neutrophil elastase, which might be involved in the process of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent sterile inflammation. The study reviews a convergence in the main pathogenic process, where the TLR-mediated inflammation occurs possibly through the endogenous ligands.
In conclusion, a circulus vitiosus of both the oxidative stress pathway and the TLR pathways is generated when the process becomes chronic (danger signal spiral).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of fat-saturated techniques should be an integral part of the work-up of any T1-hyperintense structure in the female pelvis for tissue characterization and for differentiation of a fat-containing ovarian mature teratoma from a haemorrhagic lesion. Two cases with haematocolpos and haematometra are presented, respectively. The haemorrhagic content showed high signal both on T1- and T2-weighted images, whereas an unexpected signal decrease in the fat-saturated T2-weighted inversion-recovery sequence was encountered. This unspecific suppression of signal in tissues with similar T1 relaxation times as fat can lead to a diagnostic pitfall both in T1- and T2-weighted STIR pulse sequences. Furthermore, a loss of signal on T2-weighting may also be due to the phenomenon of "T2-shading" in T1-bright ovarian endometrioma. Therefore, the fat-specific spectral fat-saturation of T1-weighted images is strongly recommended for tissue characterization in gynaecological disease.
European journal of radiology 02/2011; 81(3):598-602. DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.01.062 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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