The Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R).
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to examine trends in the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Wenchuan, China, over the four-year period following its 2008 earthquake, and to explore the risk factors related to current PTSD. Chi-square analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess PTSD morbidity and identify associated risk factors. The results indicated that the prevalence of PTSD was 58.2% at two months, 22.10% at 8 months, 19.8% at 14 months, 19.0% at 26 months, and 8.0% at about 44 months after the earthquake. Female gender, being married, low education, non-drinking, and poor self-perceived health status were significantly associated with PTSD during the early period following the earthquake. Depression was significantly associated with survivors' PTSD throughout the study period.Journal of anxiety disorders 12/2013; 28(1):75-82. · 2.68 Impact Factor
From The Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, New York University, College of Nursing
Best Practices in Nursing
Care to Older Adults
general assessment series
Issue Number 19, Revised 2008
Series Editor: Marie Boltz, PhD, GNP-BC
Series Co-Editor: Sherry A. Greenberg, MSN, GNP-BC
New York University College of Nursing
The Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R)
By: Steven Christianson, DO, MM, Medical Director, VNS CHOICE and VNSNY Home Care
and Joan Marren, MEd, RN, Chief Operating Officer, VNSNY
WHY: Like others with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), older adults respond to traumatic events with symptoms of re-experiencing,
emotional numbing, behavioral avoidance, and increased physiological arousal. Because of age-related changes and associated disease
processes, stress reaction in older adults may lead to a deterioration of function and a worsening of existing conditions. Therefore, older
adults should be considered a high risk group following a disaster or specific traumatic event. Several factors in adapting to a disaster
have been recognized as important in the older adult: an increased sense of insecurity and vulnerability; a loss of sense of control and
predictability; a need to reaffirm familiar relationships, attachments and routines; and to remain independent. The impact of a disaster on
the elderly can be magnified by chronic illness and medication, sensory limitations, mobility impairment, and literacy that place the older
adult in the special needs population after a disaster. For all of these reasons it is important to evaluate an older adult’s response to a disaster
to detect those who are in danger of decompensating.
BEST TOOL: A short, easily administered self-report questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R), has 22 questions, 5 of
which were added to the original Horowitz (IES) to better capture the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD (Weiss & Marmar, 1997). The tool, not
diagnostic for PTSD, is an appropriate instrument to measure the subjective response to a specific traumatic event in the senior population,
especially in the response sets of intrusion (intrusive thoughts, nightmares, intrusive feelings and imagery, dissociative-like re-experiencing),
avoidance (numbing of responsiveness, avoidance of feelings, situations, and ideas), and hyperarousal (anger, irritability, hypervigilance,
difficulty concentrating, heightened startle), as well as a total subjective stress IES-R score. There is no specific cut-off score. The IES-R
revises the original IES, recognized as one of the earliest self-report tools developed to assess post traumatic stress, to add a third cluster of
symptoms, hyperarousal, to intrusion and avoidance subscales. IES-R is the acronym for the test assessment purpose:
I – Impact
E – of Event
S – Scale
R – Revised
TARGET POPULATION: The IES-R can be used with both healthy and frail older adults exposed to any specific traumatic event.
It can be used for repeated measurements over time to monitor progress.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY: The IES-R was designed and validated using a specific traumatic event as a reference in the directions to
the patient while administering the tool and while using a specific time frame of the past seven days. The scale discriminates between a
variety of traumatized groups from non-traumatized groups in general population studies. The subscales of avoidance and intrusion show
good internal consistency. While related, the subscales measure different dimensions of stress response. African Americans have been shown
to score higher than whites on the IES in general population studies, an effect that diminished with increasing relative violence, and this
should be taken into account during interpretation. The hyperarousal subscale added by Weiss and Marmar has good predictive validity with
regard to trauma (Briere, 1997), while the intrusion and avoidance subscales detect relevant differences in the clinical response to traumatic
events of varying severity.
STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: The main strengths of this revised instrument are that it is still short, easily administered and scored,
correlates better with the DMS-IV criteria for PTSD, and can be used repeatedly to assess progress. It still is limited by remaining a screening
tool rather than a comprehensive test and by the non-clinical focus. It is still best used for recent not remote traumatic events. The IES-R
has been translated into many languages including Spanish, French, Chinese, Japanese, and German.
Permission is hereby granted to reproduce, post, download, and/or distribute, this material in its entirety only for not-for-profit educational purposes only, provided that
The Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, New York University, College of Nursing is cited as the source. This material may be downloaded and/or distributed in electronic format,
including PDA format. Available on the internet at www.hartfordign.org and/or www.ConsultGeriRN.org. E-mail notification of usage to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Care to Older Adults
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New York University, College of Nursing
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Briere, J. (1977). Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic states. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)/Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Emergency Preparedness and Response.
Coping with a traumatic event: Information for health professionals. (Reviewed last July 26, 2005). Retrieved March 3, 2008,
Horowitz, M.J., Wilner, M., & Alverez, W. (1979). Impact of Events Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41(3), 209-218.
New York City Department for the Aging. Ready New York guide for seniors and people with disabilities. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from
New York City Department for the Aging. Tips for seniors: Emergency preparedness guide. Retrieved March 3, 2008 from
Sundin, E.C., & Horowitz, M.J. (2002). Impact of event scale: Psychometric properties. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 205-209.
United States Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from http://www.ncptsd.org.
Weiss, D.S., & Marmar, C.R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In J.P. Wilson, & T.M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD:
A Practitioner’s Handbook (pp. 399-411). New York: Guilford Press.
Weiss, D.S. (2004). The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In J.P. Wilson, & T.M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD: A practitioner’s
handbook (2nd ed., pp. 168-189). New York: Guilford Press.
Weiss, D.S. (2007). The Impact of Event Scale: Revised. In J.P. Wilson, & C.S. Tang (Eds.), Cross-cultural assessment of psychological trauma and PTSD
(pp. 219-238). New York: Springer.
Impact of Event Scale – Revised
INSTRUCTIONS: Below is a list of difficulties people sometimes have after stressful life events. Please read each item, and then indicate
how distressing each difficulty has been for you DURING THE PAST SEVEN DAYS with respect to ___________________________,
which occurred on ______________. How much were you distressed or bothered by these difficulties?
Item Response Anchors are 0 = Not at all; 1 = A little bit; 2 = Moderately; 3 = Quite a bit; 4 = Extremely.
The Intrusion subscale is the MEAN item response of items 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 16, 20. Thus, scores can range from 0 through 4.
The Avoidance subscale is the MEAN item response of items 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 17, 22. Thus, scores can range from 0 through 4.
The Hyperarousal subscale is the MEAN item response of items 4, 10, 15, 18, 19, 21. Thus, scores can range from 0 through 4.
1. Any reminder brought back feelings about it.
2. I had trouble staying asleep.
3. Other things kept making me think about it.
4. I felt irritable and angry.
5. I avoided letting myself get upset when I thought about it or was reminded of it.
6. I thought about it when I didn’t mean to.
7. I felt as if it hadn’t happened or wasn’t real..
8. I stayed away from reminders of it.
9. Pictures about it popped into my mind.
10. I was jumpy and easily startled.
11. I tried not to think about it.
12. I was aware that I still had a lot of feelings about it, but I didn’t deal with them.
13. My feelings about it were kind of numb.
14. I found myself acting or feeling like I was back at that time.
15. I had trouble falling asleep.
16. I had waves of strong feelings about it.
17. I tried to remove it from my memory.
18. I had trouble concentrating.
19. Reminders of it caused me to have physical reactions, such as sweating, trouble breathing, nausea, or a pounding heart.
20. I had dreams about it.
21. I felt watchful and on-guard.
22. I tried not to talk about it.
Total IES-R score:_____________
Contact Information: Daniel S. Weiss, Ph.D., Professor of Medical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143-
0984, (415) 476-7557, Mail Code: UCSF Box 0984-F, firstname.lastname@example.org