The production of reactive oxygen species in tacrolimus-treated glial cells.
ABSTRACT After organ transplantation, some patients suffer from mild neurological symptoms, such as tremor, to severe complications, including seizures and encephalopathy. These neurological side effects can be caused by immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus. However, the mechanism of encephalopathy by tacrolimus is not fully understood.
We measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glioma cells after tacrolimus treatment. Tacrolimus added to glioma cells was incubated for 60 minutes at 37 degrees C. The production of ROS was evaluated by measuring the fluorescent product from the oxidation of an oxidant-sensitive 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin using VICTOR3TM multilabel counter.
Tacrolimus resulted in the production of the ROS in glioma cells. The production of the ROS was increased in time-dependent fashion.
These findings indicated that the tacrolimus may contribute the neurological side effects by ROS production.
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning increases superoxide dismutase activity, but it is unclear how ischemic preconditioning affects events downstream of hydrogen peroxide production during subsequent severe ischemia and reperfusion in the hippocampus. To answer this question, we investigated whether ischemic preconditioning in the hippocampal CA1 region increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and catalase, resulting in a decrease in the level of hydroxyl radicals during subsequent severe ischemia-reperfusion. Transient forebrain ischemia was induced by four-vessel occlusion in rats. Ischemic preconditioning for 3 min or a sham operation was performed and a 15-min severe ischemia was induced three days later. Ischemic preconditioning preserved the CA1 hippocampal neurons following severe ischemia. The concentration of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, an indicator of hydroxyl radical, was measured using in vivo microdialysis technique combined with HPLC. The ischemia-induced increase in the ratio of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid concentration relative to baseline did not differ significantly between preconditioned and control groups. On the other hand, activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase-1 and catalase were significantly increased at 3 days after ischemic preconditioning in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that, in preconditioned rats, while hydrogen peroxide is generated from severe ischemia, the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase-1 is correspondingly increased to eliminate the excessive hydrogen peroxide. However, our results show that the enhanced activity of these antioxidant enzymes in preconditioned rats is not sufficient to decrease hydroxyl radical levels during subsequent severe ischemia-reperfusion.Experimental and Molecular Medicine 09/2007; 39(4):556-63. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The damage induced by oxygen free radicals (OFRs) is caused by an imbalance of the production of versus the antioxidant defenses against OFRs. To understand hepatic damage induced by oxygen free radicals after hepatectomy in rats, total antioxidant status and total production of oxygen free radicals were serially measured in regeneration liver. At 1, 2, 3, 7, and 10 days after hepatectomy of Sprague-Dawley rats, blood was obtained into a capillary tube from a tail vein. Total antioxidant status and total production of oxygen free radicals were measured using the Randox kit, a colorimetric method, and the Free Radical Analytical System. We also measured the amount of malonyldialdehyde, which provides an indirect index of oxidative injury. The level of malonyldialdehyde after hepatectomy was higher compared with that before hepatectomy. The level of total oxygen free radicals after hepatectomy was higher compared with that before hepatectomy. Total antioxidant status after hepatectomy was lower compared with that before hepatectomy. The results suggested that the damage by OFRs to the regenerating liver was caused by increased production of OFRs and decreased antioxidant defense against OFRs.Transplantation Proceedings 10/2006; 38(7):2214-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) are two primary immunosuppressive agents used for the prevention of graft rejection. However, their use is associated with significant side effects, most notably nephrotoxicity. The mechanisms of this toxicity are not fully understood, but they seem to be associated with increases in the production of oxygen free radicals (OFRs). This present work examined the effect of CsA and Tac on the production of OFRs in cultured rat renal mesangial cells (RMCs). Varying concentrations of CsA and Tac (0 to 40 micromol/L) were added to RMCs and incubated for 60 minutes at 37 degrees C. The production of OFRs was evaluated by measuring the fluorescent product from the oxidation of an oxidant-sensitive 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin. At 60 minutes, the relative fluorescence units (RFU) for OFRs production in RMCs exposure to CsA were increased by 2.5%, 11.5%, 22.5%, 57.2%, and 174% at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 micromol/L, respectively. Tac increased the RFU by 15.9%, 13.6%, 14.8%, 13.2%, 21.4%, 13.2%, and 28.1% at 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 micromol/L, respectively. In RMCs, the RFU produced by CsA was higher than that by Tac. The results of this experiment suggest that CsA and Tac induced renal injury by OFRs.Transplantation Proceedings 10/2006; 38(7):2240-1. · 0.95 Impact Factor