Comparison of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography with spectral analysis of intravascular ultrasound backscatter signals for characterizations of noncalcified coronary arterial plaques.
ABSTRACT In vivo identification of plaque composition may allow the detection of vulnerable plaques before rupture. However, the clinical relevance of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in characterizing coronary plaques is currently a subject of debate. We compared 64-slice MDCT with virtual histology to investigate the potential role of 64-slice MDCT in the differentiation of composition of noncalcified coronary plaques. Fifty-nine consecutive patients (stable/unstable angina 34/21) were enrolled. Mean computed tomographic (CT) density (Hounsfield units) of noncalcified coronary plaques (n = 80) was compared with a relative volume of each plaque component (fibrous, fibrofatty, calcium, and necrotic core) analyzed by virtual histology. Mean heart rate during MDCT was 58 +/- 9 beats/min. There was a negative correlation between mean CT density and the necrotic core (r = -0.539, p <0.001) and a positive correlation between mean CT density and the fibrotic tissue component (r = 0.571, p <0.001). Mean CT density of the plaques with a <10% necrotic core was significantly higher than that of a >or=10% necrotic core (93.1 +/- 37.5 vs 41.3 +/- 26.4 HU, p <0.001). However, overlapping of mean CT densities between plaques with a <10% necrotic core and those with a >or=10% necrotic core was found. In conclusion, mean CT density of noncalcified coronary plaques measured by 64-slice MDCT may depend on the relative volumes of the necrotic core and fibrotic component. Sixty-four-slice MDCT may have the potential for determining composition of noncalcified coronary plaques, which needs further studies for clinical application.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been a growing interest in identification of coronary “vulnerable plaques” that are prone to rupture; this potentially would help identify patients with higher risk of development of cardiac events. Recent advances in cardiac imaging modalities have been successful in studying various plaque vulnerability features to variable degrees, strengths and limitations. Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography (CTCA) has gained an increasing popularity in studying plaque anatomy, morphology and composition by the virtue of its widespread availability and non-invasiveness. CTCA has been validated against histology and IVUS with reasonable correlation; moreover, some follow-up studies have shown a significant association to the development of acute coronary syndromes. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to the whole patient big picture that includes other factors operating on other extra-coronary axes that involve inflammation, immunity, coagulation and neuroendocrine systems.07/2013; 1(2).
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ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammatory mechanisms in the arterial wall lead to atherosclerosis, and include endothelial cell damage, inflammation, apoptosis, lipoprotein deposition, calcification and fibrosis. Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive assessment of theses specific compositional and structural changes in coronary arteries. This review focuses on the technical background of CCTA-based quantitative plaque characterization. Furthermore, we discuss the available evidence for CCTA-based plaque characterization and the potential role of CCTA for risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease.World journal of cardiology. 07/2014; 6(7):663-70.
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the feasibility of automatic computer-aided analysis (CAA) compared with semi-automatic CAA for differentiating lipid-rich from fibrous plaques based on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) imaging. Seventy-four coronary plaques in 57 patients were evaluated by CCTA using 64-slice dual-source CT. Quantitative analysis of coronary artery plaques was performed by measuring the relative volumes (low, medium, and calcified) of plaque components using automatic CAA and by measuring mean CT density using semi-automatic CAA. We compared the two plaque measurement methods for lipid-rich and fibrous plaques using Pearson's correlation. Intravascular ultrasonography was used as the goal standard for assessment of plaques. Mean CT density of plaques tended to increase in the order of lipid [36 ± 19 Hounsfield unit (HU)], fibrous (106 ± 34 HU), and then calcified plaques (882 ± 296 HU). The mean relative volumes of 'low' components measured by automatic CAA were 13.8 ± 4.6, 7.9 ± 6.7, and 3.5 ± 3.0 % for lipid, fibrous, and calcified plaques, respectively (r = -0.348, P = 0.022). The mean relative volumes of 'medium' components on automatic CAA were 12.9 ± 4.1, 15.7 ± 9.6, and 5.6 ± 4.8 % for lipid, fibrous, and calcified plaques, respectively (r = -0.385, P = 0.011). The mean relative volumes of low and medium components within plaques significantly correlated with the types of plaques. Plaque analysis using automatic CAA has the potential to differentiate lipid from fibrous plaques based on measurement of the relative volume percentages of the low and medium components.The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 11/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor