Vascular endothelial growth factor and diabetic complications.
ABSTRACT Intraocular delivery of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies is now used widely to treat age-related macular degeneration, and is currently undergoing evaluation in clinical trials for treatment of diabetic retinopathy. An important aspect of anti-VEGF treatment is that while the agents are injected into the vitreous cavity, they may be absorbed systemically, thus potentially affecting systemic VEGF levels. Systemic VEGF-A and the interplay between membrane-bound VEGF receptors and the soluble form of VEGF-R1 are key to angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, neurogenesis and hemodynamics. These cellular processes are regulated by complicated negative and positive feedback loops, many of which are disrupted and altered in diabetes. The VEGF protein, mRNA, as well as the actual VEGF receptor levels, appear to be impaired in diabetes in microvascular and macrovascular vessel beds. What is not clear is the exact role and influence that these levels have on an organ's function. In some organ systems, elevated VEGF levels act as a pathologic angiogenic stimulus (i.e., ocular neovascularization) whereas in others, low levels of VEGF activity leads to pathology (i.e., cardiomyopathy, wound healing and peripheral neuropathy). Diabetic patients have a higher risk of hypertension and proteinuria, two surrogate markers of systemic VEGF inhibition. Certain intraocular anti-VEGF treatments could therefore have an adverse effect in this population by possibly affecting circulating and organ-specific VEGF and VEGF receptor levels.
Article: Chotosan ameliorates cognitive and emotional deficits in an animal model of type 2 diabetes: possible involvement of cholinergic and VEGF/PDGF mechanisms in the brain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the risk factors for cognitive deficits such as Alzheimer's disease. To obtain a better understanding of the anti-dementia effect of chotosan (CTS), a Kampo formula, we investigated its effects on cognitive and emotional deficits of type 2 diabetic db/db mice and putative mechanism(s) underlying the effects. METHODS: Seven-week-old db/db mice received daily administration of CTS (375 -- 750 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drug tacrine (THA: 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) during an experimental period of 7 weeks. From the age of 9-week-old, the animals underwent the novel object recognition test, the modified Y-maze test, and the water maze test to elucidate cognitive performance and the elevated plus maze test to elucidate anxiety-related behavior. After completing behavioral studies, Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies were conducted. RESULTS: Compared with age-matched non-diabetic control strain (m/m) mice, db/db mice exhibited impaired cognitive performance and an increased level of anxiety. CTS ameliorated cognitive and emotional deficits of db/db mice, whereas THA improved only cognitive performance. The phosphorylated levels of Akt and PKCalpha in the hippocampus were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in db/db mice than in m/m mice. Expression levels of the hippocampal cholinergic marker proteins and the number of the septal cholinergic neurons were also reduced in db/db mice compared with those in m/m mice. Moreover, the db/db mice had significantly reduced levels of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor type 2, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and PDGF receptor beta, in the hippocampus. CTS and THA treatment reversed these neurochemical and histological alterations caused by diabetes. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CTS ameliorates diabetes-induced cognitive deficits by protecting central cholinergic and VEGF/PDGF systems via Akt signaling pathway and that CTS exhibits the anxiolytic effect via neuronal mechanism(s) independent of cholinergic or VEGF/PDGF systems in db/db mice.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2012; 12(1):188. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disease and a chronic health-care problem. Nowadays, because of alteration of lifestyle such as lack of exercise, intake of high fat diet subsequently obesity and aging population, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing quickly in around the world. The international diabetes federation estimated in 2008, that 246 million adults in worldwide suffered from diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of disease is expected to reach to 380 million by 2025. Although, mainly in management of diabetes focused on hyperglycemia, however, it is documented that abnormalities of angiogenesis may contribute in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. Angiogenesis is the generation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. Normal angiogenesis depends on the intricate balance between angiogenic factors (such as VEGF, FGF(2), TGF-β, angiopoietins) and angiostatic factors (angiostatin, endostatin, thrombospondins). Vascular abnormalities in different tissues including retina and kidney can play a role in pathogenesis of micro-vascular complications of diabetes; also vascular impairment contributes in macrovascular complications e.g., diabetic neuropathy and impaired formation of coronary collaterals. Therefore, identifying of different mechanisms of the diabetic complications can give us an opportunity to prevent and/or treat the following complications and improves quality of life for patients and society. In this review, we studied the mechanisms of angiogenesis in micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus.International journal of preventive medicine 12/2012; 3(12):827-38.
Article: What is the contribution of two genetic variants regulating VEGF levels to type 2 diabetes risk and to microvascular complications?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key chemokine involved in tissue growth and organ repair processes, particularly angiogenesis. Elevated circulating VEGF levels are believed to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) microvascular complications, especially diabetic retinopathy. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6921438 and rs10738760) explaining nearly half of the variance in circulating VEGF levels. Considering the putative contribution of VEGF to T2D and its complications, we aimed to assess the effect of these VEGF-related SNPs on the risk of T2D, nephropathy and retinopathy, as well as on variation in related traits.SNPs were genotyped in several case-control studies: French and Danish T2D studies (N(cases) = 6,920-N(controls) = 3,875 and N(cases) = 3,561-N(controls) = 2,623; respectively), two French studies one for diabetic nephropathy (N(cases) = 1,242-N(controls) = 860) and the other for diabetic retinopathy (N(cases) = 1,336-N(controls) = 1,231). The effects of each SNP on quantitative traits were analyzed in a French general population-based cohort (N = 4,760) and two French T2D studies (N = 3,480). SNP associations were assessed using logistic or linear regressions.In the French population, we found an association between the G-allele of rs6921438, shown to increase circulating VEGF levels, and increased T2D risk (OR = 1.15; P = 3.7×10(-5)). Furthermore, the same allele was associated with higher glycated hemoglobin levels (β = 0.02%; P = 9.2×10(-3)). However, these findings were not confirmed in the Danes. Conversely, the SNP rs10738760 was not associated with T2D in the French or Danish populations. Despite having adequate statistical power, we did not find any significant effects of rs6921438 or rs10738760 on diabetic microvascular complications or the variation in related traits in T2D patients.In spite of their impact on the variance in circulating VEGF, we did not find any association between SNPs rs6921438 and rs10738760, and the risk of T2D, diabetic nephropathy or retinopathy. The link between VEGF and T2D and its complications might be indirect and more complex than expected.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55921. · 4.09 Impact Factor