Inhibitory KIR/HLA incompatibility between sexual partners confers protection against HIV-1 transmission
ABSTRACT Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate natural killer (NK) cells in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-dependent manner. KIR/HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplants induce alloreactive NK cells, which prevent leukemia relapse. Certain KIR/HLA combinations protect against HIV-1 infection, but the effect of KIR/HLA mismatches between sexual partners has never been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the effect of allogeneic KIR/HLA combinations on HIV-1 transmission in a West African population of HIV-1-discordant and concordant couples. HIV-1-discordant couples were characterized by recipient partners with homozygous KIR2DL2, and by a mismatched recipient partner KIR2DL1/HLA-C2 with index partner HLA-C1/C1 combination expected to allow licensed missing self NK cell killing of index partners' cells. HIV-1-concordant couples on the other hand were characterized by KIR2DL3 homozygous recipient partners with HLA-C1/C2 bearing index partners, resulting in a matched KIR/HLA combination expected to inhibit NK cell killing. In vitro cocultures of healthy donor-derived NK cells and HIV-1 patient-derived CD4(+) T cells confirmed the involvement of these allogeneic KIR/HLA combinations in NK cell-mediated CD4(+) T-cell killing. Our data suggest that KIR/HLA incompatibility between sexual partners confers protection against HIV-1 transmission and that this may be due to alloreactive NK cell killing of the HIV-1-infected partner's cells.
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ABSTRACT: Mouse natural killer (NK) cells acquire effector function by an education process termed "licensing" mediated by inhibitory Ly49 receptors which recognize self-MHC class I. Ly49 receptors can bind to MHC class I on targets (in trans) and also to MHC class I on the NK-cell surface (in cis). Which of these interactions regulates NK-cell licensing is not yet clear. Moreover, there are no clear phenotypic differences between licensed and unlicensed NK cells, perhaps because of the previously limited ability to study NK cells with synchronized licensing. Here, we produced MHC class I-deficient mice with inducible MHC class I consisting of a single-chain trimer (SCT), ovalbumin peptide-β2 microgloblin-H2K(b) (SCT-K(b)). Only NK cells with a Ly49 receptor with specificity for SCT-K(b) were licensed after MHC class I induction. NK cells were localized consistently in red pulp of the spleen during induced NK-cell licensing, and there were no differences in maturation or activation markers on recently licensed NK cells. Although MHC class I-deficient NK cells were licensed in hosts following SCT-K(b) induction, NK cells were not licensed after induced SCT-K(b) expression on NK cells themselves in MHC class I-deficient hosts. Furthermore, hematopoietic cells with induced SCT-K(b) licensed NK cells more efficiently than stromal cells. These data indicate that trans interaction with MHC class I on hematopoietic cells regulates NK-cell licensing, which is not associated with other obvious phenotypic changes.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; 110(45). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1318255110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
Blood 09/2013; 122(11):1984-5. DOI:10.1182/blood-2013-06-502864 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:20. DOI:10.1155/2014/350195 · 2.71 Impact Factor