Dantrolene Enhances Antisense-Mediated Exon Skipping in Human and Mouse Models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Science translational medicine (Impact Factor: 15.84). 12/2012; 4(164):164ra160. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005054
Source: PubMed


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes profound and progressive muscle weakness and loss, resulting in early death. DMD is usually caused by frameshifting deletions in the gene DMD, which leads to absence of dystrophin protein. Dystrophin binds to F-actin and components of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and protects the sarcolemma from contraction-induced injury. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping is a promising therapeutic approach aimed at restoring the DMD reading frame and allowing expression of an intact dystrophin glycoprotein complex. To date, low levels of dystrophin protein have been produced in humans by this method. We performed a small-molecule screen to identify existing drugs that enhance antisense-directed exon skipping. We found that dantrolene, currently used to treat malignant hyperthermia, potentiates antisense oligomer-guided exon skipping to increase exon skipping to restore the mRNA reading frame, the sarcolemmal dystrophin protein, and the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in skeletal muscles of mdx mice when delivered intramuscularly or intravenously. Further, dantrolene synergized with multiple weekly injections of antisense to increase muscle strength and reduce serum creatine kinase in mdx mice. Dantrolene similarly promoted antisense-mediated exon skipping in reprogrammed myotubes from DMD patients. Ryanodine and Rycal S107, which, like dantrolene, targets the ryanodine receptor, also promoted antisense-driven exon skipping, implicating the ryanodine receptor as the critical molecular target.

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Available from: Stanley F Nelson, Dec 24, 2014
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    • "Dantrolene has previously been shown to enhance exon skipping in mdx mice but not improve muscle strength on its own 24. Our study confirms their findings despite using a higher dose of the drug to treat older mdx mice for a longer period of time (8 weeks). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dystrophin deficiency causes contraction-induced injury and damage to the muscle fiber, resulting in sustained increase in intracellular calcium levels, activation of calcium-dependent proteases and cell death. It is known that the Ryanodine receptor (RyR1) on the sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) membrane controls calcium release. Dantrolene, an FDA approved skeletal muscle relaxant, inhibits the release of calcium from the SR during excitation-contraction and suppresses uncontrolled calcium release by directly acting on the RyR complex to limit its activation. This study examines whether Dantrolene can reduce the disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. We treated mdx mice (4 weeks old) with daily intraperitoneal injections of 40mg/kg of Dantrolene for 6 weeks and measured functional (grip strength, in vitro force contractions), behavioral (open field digiscan), imagining (optical imaging for inflammation), histological (H&E), and molecular (protein and RNA) endpoints in a blinded fashion. We found that treatment with Dantrolene resulted in decreased grip strength and open field behavioral activity in mdx mice. There was no significant difference in inflammation either by optical imaging analysis of cathepsin activity or histological (H&E) analysis. In vitro force contraction measures showed no changes in EDL muscle-specific force, lengthening-contraction force deficit, or fatigue resistance. We found Dantrolene treatment significantly reduces serum CK levels. Further, Dantrolene-treated mice showed decreased SERCA1 but not RyR1 expression in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that Dantrolene treatment alone has no significant beneficial effects at the tested doses in young mdx mice.
    PLoS Currents 11/2013; 5. DOI:10.1371/
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    • "Another approach that is being pursued is the design of non-coding RNAs that can be regulated by small molecules (71). A recent study in muscle cells and tissues showed that Dantrolene, an antagonist of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium channel, could directly enhance SSO-mediated splicing, presumably by affecting nuclear calcium levels (72). However, to our knowledge, the current report is the first to describe the enhancement of oligonucleotide action through modulation of intracellular trafficking or processing by a non-lysosomotropic effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: The attainment of strong pharmacological effects with oligonucleotides is hampered by inefficient access of these molecules to their sites of action in the cytosol or nucleus. Attempts to address this problem with lipid or polymeric delivery systems have been only partially successful. Here, we describe a novel alternative approach involving the use of a non-toxic small molecule to enhance the pharmacological effects of oligonucleotides. The compound Retro-1 was discovered in a screen for small molecules that reduce the actions of bacterial toxins and has been shown to block the retrograde trafficking pathway. We demonstrate that Retro-1 can also substantially enhance the effectiveness of antisense and splice switching oligonucleotides in cell culture. This effect occurs at the level of intracellular trafficking or processing and is correlated with increased oligonucleotide accumulation in the nucleus but does not involve the perturbation of lysosomal compartments. We also show that Retro-1 can alter the effectiveness of splice switching oligonucleotides in the in vivo setting. These observations indicate that it is possible to enhance the pharmacological actions of oligonucleotides using non-toxic and non-lysosomotropic small molecule adjuncts.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2013; 41(6). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt066 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A drug that improves production of dystrophin protein reduces disease severity in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
    Science 12/2012; 338(6113):1431-2. DOI:10.1126/science.1233074 · 33.61 Impact Factor
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