Effect of calcium hydroxide on proinflammatory cytokines and neuropeptides.

Department of Endodontics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7450, USA.
Journal of endodontics (Impact Factor: 2.95). 11/2008; 34(11):1360-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.08.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Calcium hydroxide, a widely used intracanal medicament, is known to exert an antimicrobial effect and to degrade bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharides. However, little is known about the effect of Ca(OH)(2) on endogenous inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This is an important gap in knowledge because these inflammatory mediators play an important role in mediating the pathogenesis of periradicular periodontitis. We tested the hypothesis that Ca(OH)(2) denatures IL-1 alpha, TNF-alpha, and CGRP. Human IL-1 alpha (0.125 ng/mL), TNF-alpha (0.2 ng/mL), and CGRP (0.25 ng/mL) were incubated with Ca(OH)(2) (0.035 mg/mL) for 1-7 days. At the end of the incubation period, the pH of the samples was neutralized, and the concentrations of the mediators were measured by immunoassays. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni multiple comparison tests. The results indicate that Ca(OH)(2) denatures IL-1 alpha, TNF-alpha, and CGRP by 50%-100% during the testing periods (P < .001). We concluded that denaturation of these proinflammatory mediators is a potential mechanism by which Ca(OH)(2) contributes to the resolution of periradicular periodontitis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One-appointment procedure is an endodontic therapy protocol that has been growing in popularity among clinicians and patients. It definitely brings many advantages in clinical management and in relating to the patients’ needs.Whenaccepting a one-appointment procedure the clinician assumes that the long term prognosis mirrors the multi-appointment procedure. The aim of thiswork is to analyze and evaluate if this assumption is correct when bacterial infection is present. The relevant literature on one-appointment versus multiappointment endodontic treatment on teeth with apical periodontitis up to December of 2010 was reviewed using PubMed database searches. The literature was searched regarding the following topics: periapical healing, bacterial elimination, histological studies, bacterial endotoxins elimination and post-operative pain. An analysis of the treatment protocol and concept differences between both treatments and an overall discussion are also presented. There is a general agreement on the need of an effective bacteriological control. Although more studies are required to support the one- versus multiple-appointment procedure.
    09/2011; 52(3):181-186. DOI:10.1016/j.rpemd.2011.04.002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in contact with acidic, neutral and alkaline pH values. The cement was mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions, it was then condensed into fourteen split molds with five 4×6 mm holes. The specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) and were then exposed to environments with pH values of 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4 and 10.4 in an incubator at 37(°) C for 4 days. After removing the samples from the molds, cement pellets were compressed in a universal testing machine. The exact forces required for breaking of the samples were recorded. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for individual and pairwise comparisons, respectively. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The greatest (48.59±10.36) and the lowest (9.67±3.16) mean compressive strength values were observed after exposure to pH value of 9.4 and 7.4, respectively. Alkaline environment significantly increased the compressive strength of CEM cement compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between the pH values of 9.4 and 10.4 but significant differences were found between pH values of 9.4, 8.4 and 7.4. The acidic environment showed better results than the neutral environment, although the difference was not significant for the pH value of 6.4. Alkaline pH also showed significantly better results than acidic and neutral pH. The compressive strength of CEM cement improved in the presence of acidic and alkaline environments but alkaline environment showed the best results.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objetivos Avaliar a eficácia da preparação químico-mecânica com ou sem medicação intracanalar (pasta de hidróxido de cálcio [Ca(OH)2] ou gel de digluconato de clorhexidina a 2% [CHX]) no tratamento de dentes necrosados com ou sem lesão periapical. Métodos Ensaio clínico prospetivo em 69 dentes monocanalares com necrose pulpar ou periodontite apical. A colheita microbiológica ocorreu antes do tratamento (S1), após preparação químico-mecânica (S2) e após 14 dias de medicação intracanalar (S3). Mediram-se as unidades formadoras de colónias (UFC) em aerobiose, anaerobiose e microaerofilia. As medianas de UFP de diferentes tratamentos e culturas foram comparadas com o teste de Friedman. A comparação do efeito da medicação intracanalar em S3 utilizou os testes Wilcoxon e t. Mann-Whitney. Dada a grande variabilidade de UFC nos distintos momentos de colheita, as diferenças entre S1, S2 e S3 foram traduzidas em logaritmos de 10. As contagens de S2 e S3 foram expressas como percentagem de redução de carga bacteriana relativamente a S1. Resultados Encontraram-se diferenças significativas entre S1, S2 e S3 (teste Friedman; p < 0,001), com decréscimo significativo de S1 para S2 (teste Wilcoxon; p < 0,004), e aumento significativo de S2 para S3 (p < 0,001) no grupo de CHX, manutenção em aerobiose e anaerobiose (teste Wilcoxon; p = 0,777/0,227) e aumento em microaerofilia (teste Wilcoxon; p = 0,047) para o grupo experimental com Ca(OH)2. Os 2 grupos só diferiram significativamente em S3 (teste Mann–Whitney; p ≤ 0,001), com pior desempenho da CHX. Conclusões O tratamento reduziu, de forma significativa, a carga bacteriana, mas não esterilizou os canais radiculares. O Ca(OH)2 apresentou melhor desempenho que a CHX.
    04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.rpemd.2014.02.002