Tissue-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Analysis Reveals Large Modifications of the Duodenal ‘‘Immunological Niche’’ in Coeliac Disease After Gluten-Free Diet
ABSTRACT The role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of Celiac disease (CD) is well established. However, the mechanisms of T-cell involvement remain elusive. Little is known on the distribution of T subpopulations: T-regulatory (Treg), Th17, CD103, and CD62L cells at disease onset and after gluten-free diet (GFD). We investigated the involvement of several T subpopulations in the pathogenesis of CD.
We studied T cells both in the peripheral blood (PB) and the tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from the mucosa of 14 CD patients at presentation and after a GFD, vs. 12 controls.
Our results extend the involvement of Treg, Th1, and Th17 cells in active CD inflammation both in the PB and at the TILs. At baseline, Tregs, Th1, and Th17 cells are significantly higher in active CD patients in TILs and PB. They decreased after diet. Moreover, CD62L+ TILs were increased at diagnosis as compared with GFD patients.
Our data show significant modifications of the above-mentioned subpopulations both in the PB and TILs. The increase of suppressive Tregs in active CD both in the PB and TILs is intriguing. T lymphocytes are known to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CD. We have shown that gluten trigger results in systemic recruitment of T lymphocytes, the unbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory populations and the increase of CD62L+ T cells in TILs. Our results delineate a more complete picture of T-cell subsets in active vs. GFD disease. Our data of T-cell subpopulations, combined with known data on cytokine production, support the concept that duodenal micro-environment acts as an immunological niche and this recognition may have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutical approach of CD.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the densities of dendritic cells (DCs) and FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their interrelations in the small bowel mucosa in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). Seventy-four patients (45 female, 29 male, mean age 11.1 ± 6.8 years) who underwent small bowel biopsy were studied. CD without T1D was diagnosed in 18 patients, and CD with T1D was diagnosed in 15 patients. Normal small bowel mucosa was found in two T1D patients. Thirty-nine patients (mean age 12.8 ± 4.9 years) with other diagnoses (functional dyspepsia, duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis, etc.) formed the control group. All CD patients had partial or subtotal villous atrophy according to the Marsh classification: Marsh grade IIIa in 9, grade IIIb in 21 and grade IIIc in 3 cases. Thirty-nine patients without CD and 2 with T1D had normal small bowel mucosa (Marsh grade 0). The densities of CD11c(+), IDO(+), CD103(+), Langerin (CD207(+)) DCs and FOXP3(+) Tregs were investigated by immunohistochemistry (on paraffin-embedded specimens) and immunofluorescence (on cryostat sections) methods using a combination of mono- and double-staining. Sixty-six serum samples were tested for IgA-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) using a fully automated EliA™ Celikey(®) IgA assay (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Freiburg, Germany). The density of CD11c(+) DCs was significantly increased in CD patients compared with patients with normal mucosa (21.67 ± 2.49 vs 13.58 ± 1.51, P = 0.007). The numbers of FOXP3(+) cells were significantly higher in CD patients (10.66 ± 1.50 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.0002) and in patients with CD and coexisting T1D (8.11 ± 1.64 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.002) compared with patients with normal mucosa. The density of FOXP3(+) cells significantly correlated with the histological grade of atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa according to the March classification (r = 0.62; P < 0.0001) and with levels of IgA antibody (r = 0.55; P < 0.0001). The densities of IDO(+) DCs were significantly higher in CD patients (21.6 ± 2.67 vs 6.26 ± 0.84, P = 0.00003) and in patients with CD and coexisting T1D (19.08 ± 3.61 vs 6.26 ± 0.84, P = 0.004) compared with patients with normal mucosa. A significant correlation was identified between the densities of IDO(+) DCs and FOXP3(+) T cells (r = 0.76; P = 0.0001). The mean values of CD103(+) DCs were significantly higher in CD patients (10.66 ± 1.53 vs 6.34 ± 0.61, P = 0.01) and in patients with CD and associated T1D (11.13 ± 0.72 vs 6.34 ± 0.61, P = 0.00002) compared with subjects with normal small bowel mucosa. The mean value of Langerin(+) DCs was higher in CD patients compared with persons with normal mucosa (7.4 ± 0.92 vs 5.64 ± 0.46, P = 0.04). The participation of diverse DC subsets in the pathological processes of CD and the possible involvement of tolerogenic DCs in Tregs development to maintain intestinal immunological tolerance in CD patients are revealed.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and celiac disease (CD) are considered as autoimmune diseases that share a defined trigger (gluten) and a common genetic background (HLA-DQ2/DQ8). However, the pathogenesis of DH is not fully understood and no data are available about the immune regulation in such a disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess if alterations in the pattern of the immune response and, in particular, impairments of regulatory T (Tregs) cells may contribute to the phenotypic differences between DH and CD. Methods: We investigated the presence of Tregs cell markers, in the skin, the duodenum and the blood of patients with DH by immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. As controls, we included patients with bullous pemphigoid, patients with CD without skin lesions, as well as healthy subjects (HS). Results: In the skin of DH patient, we found a significantly lower proportion of FOXP3(+) Tregs and IL-10(+) cells than in HS (p < 0.001 for both cell populations). In duodenal samples, no differences where found in the proportion of Tregs between patients with DH and patients with CD without skin manifestations. Finally, the frequency of CD25(bright)Foxp3(+) cells within the CD4(+) subset was significantly reduced in CD patients either with or without DH with respect to HS (p = 0.029 and p = 0.017, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that a reduction of Tregs may play a major role in the skin, leading to a defective suppressive function and thus to the development of the lesions. By contrast, no differences could be detected about Tregs between patients with DH and patients with CD in the duodenum, suggesting that the mechanisms of the intestinal damage are similar in both diseases.Journal of Dermatological Science 11/2014; 77(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2014.11.003 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aim. Uncomplicated diverticular disease (UDD) is a frequent condition in adults. The pathogenesis of symptoms remains unknown. Bacteria are able to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and to induce inflammation through both innate immunity and T-cell recruitment. We investigated the pattern of TLRs 2 and 4 and the intestinal homing in patients with UDD before and after a course of Rifaximin. Methods. Forty consecutive patients with UDD and 20 healthy asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Among UDD patients, 20 were assigned to a 2-month course of treatment with Rifaximin 1.2 g/day for 15 days/month and 20 received placebo. Blood sample and colonic biopsies were obtained from patients and controls. The samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Flow cytometry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD103, TCR-gamma/delta, CD14, TLR2, and TLR4). Results. In UDD, TLR2 and TLR4 expression on immune cell subpopulations from blood and mucosa of the affected colon are altered as compared with controls. Rifaximin treatment induced significant modifications of altered conditions. Conclusions. Our data show the role of TLRs in the development of inflammation in UDD. TLRs distribution is altered in UDD and these alterations are reversed after antibiotic treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02068482.Research Journal of Immunology 07/2014; DOI:10.1155/2014/696812