Fetal Lung Volume in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Association of Prenatal MR Imaging Findings with Postnatal Chronic Lung Disease
ABSTRACT Purpose:To assess whether chronic lung disease (CLD) in surviving infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with lung hypoplasia on the basis of the results of antenatal observed-to-expected fetal lung volume (FLV) ratio measurement at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Materials and Methods:The study received approval from the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent for this retrospective review from patients who had previously given informed consent for prospective studies. The ratio of observed to expected FLV at MR imaging was calculated in 172 fetuses with CDH. At postpartum day 28, the need for supplemental oxygen implicated the diagnosis of CLD. At day 56, patients with CLD were assigned to one of three groups-those with mild, moderate, or severe CLD-according to their demand for oxygen. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of the individual observed-to-expected FLV ratio for association with postnatal development of CLD.Results:Children with CLD were found to have significantly smaller observed-to-expected FLV ratios at MR imaging than infants without CLD (P < .001). Grading of CLD revealed significant differences in observed-to-expected FLV ratio between patients with mild CLD and those with moderate (P = .012) or severe (P = .007) CLD. For an observed-to-expected FLV ratio of 5%, 99% of patients with CDH developed CLD, compared with less than 5% of fetuses with an observed-to-expected FLV ratio of 50%. Perinatally, development and grade of CLD were further influenced by the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (P < .001) and gestational age at delivery (P = .009).Conclusion:Manifestation of CLD in surviving infants with CDH is associated with the prenatally determined observed-to-expected FLV ratio. Early neonatal therapeutic decisions can additionally be based on this ratio. Perinatally, ECMO requirement and gestational age at delivery are useful in further improving the estimated probability of CLD.© RSNA, 2012.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate individual changes in fetal lung volume (FLV) in fetuses with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and to calculate weekly growth rates of the FLV using serial MR examinations during pregnancy. MR-FLV was measured in 89 fetuses with CDH. All fetuses received two MRIs. A mean weekly growth rate of the FLV was determined for each fetus and compared with the growth rate of healthy fetuses. Mean observed-to-expected MR-FLV (o/e MR-FLV) measured at the first MRI was 33.3 ± 12.2 % and 29.5 ± 10.9 % at the second MRI. In 61 % of all fetuses (54/89) the o/e MR-FLV decreased during pregnancy, 26 % (23/89) showed an increase in the o/e MR-FLV and 13 % (12/89) had stable values. First and last o/e MR-FLV values were significantly associated with mortality and neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requirement with a higher prognostic accuracy of MR-FLV measurements near delivery. Patients with CDH had lower weekly lung growth rates than healthy fetuses. There was a significant difference in the mean weekly growth rate between survivors and non-survivors and patients with and without ECMO requirement. Individual development of FLV in patients with CDH during pregnancy is extremely variable. Follow-up MR-FLV measurements are advisable before deciding upon pre- and postnatal therapeutic options. • Lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) during pregnancy is extremely variable. • MRI demonstrates that lung growth rate is reduced in fetuses with CDH. • The final observed-to-expected fetal lung volume provides the best prognostic information. • Follow-up measurements are advisable before deciding upon therapeutic options.European Radiology 10/2013; 24(2). DOI:10.1007/s00330-013-3011-y · 4.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful, noninvasive tool to study fetal lung volumes after 18 weeks of gestation in vivo. In neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD), proper lung function is essential for postnatal survival. Antenatal detection of abnormal pulmonary development may help to optimize prenatal and perinatal management of at-risk fetuses. We aimed to investigate lung volumes in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed heart disease. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of 105 consecutive singleton pregnancies with CHD and a control, non-CHD group (n = 115), that underwent fetal MRI was performed. The heart defects detected were divided into four groups. Lung volumes of fetuses with heart disease were compared with control, non-CHD fetuses. In addition, z-scores of lung volumes were calculated for the CHD group (normal range z-scores from -2-+2). As a group, fetuses with CHD have significantly smaller lung volumes compared with control fetuses when corrected by gestational age (GA) (p = 0.049). Of the 105 CHD fetuses studied, 18 had lung volumes with a z-score < -2. Fetuses with different types of CHD showed similar lung volumes. Our data indicate that postpartum pulmonary symptoms and outcome in neonates with congenital heart disease may be attributed to the cardiac disease itself and in part to smaller lung volumes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Prenatal Diagnosis 03/2014; 34(3). DOI:10.1002/pd.4308 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether prenatal imaging parameters are predictive of postnatal CDH-associated pulmonary morbidity. Methods The records of all neonates with CDH treated from 2004–2012 were reviewed. Patients requiring supplemental oxygen at 30 days of life (DOL) were classified as having chronic lung disease (CLD). Fetal MRI-measured observed/expected total fetal lung volume (O/E-TFLV) and percent liver herniation (%LH) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate regression were applied to assess the prognostic value of O/E-TFLV and %LH for development of CLD. Results Of 172 neonates with CDH, 108 had fetal MRIs, and survival was 76%. 82% (89/108) were alive at DOL 30, 46 (52%) of which had CLD. Neonates with CLD had lower mean O/E-TFLV (30vs.42%;p = 0.001) and higher %LH (21.3 ± 2.8 vs.7.1 ± 1.8%;p < 0.001) compared to neonates without CLD. Using ROC analysis, the best cutoffs in predicting CLD were an O/E-TFLV < 35% (AUC = 0.74;p < 0.001) and %LH > 20% (AUC = 0.78;p < 0.001). On logistic regression, O/E-TFLV < 35% and a %LH > 20% were highly associated with indicators of long-term pulmonary sequelae. On multivariate analysis, %LH was the strongest predictor of CLD in patients with CDH (OR:10.96, 95%CI:2.5–48.9,p = 0.002). Conclusion Prenatal measurement of O/E-TFLV and %LH are predictive of CDH pulmonary morbidity and can aid in establishing parental expectations of postnatal outcomes.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.02.048 · 1.31 Impact Factor