Development in the STORM
ABSTRACT The recent invention of superresolution microscopy has brought up much excitement in the biological research community. Here, we focus on stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy/photoactivated localization microscopy (STORM/PALM) to discuss the challenges in applying superresolution microscopy to the study of developmental biology, including tissue imaging, sample preparation artifacts, and image interpretation. We also summarize new opportunities that superresolution microscopy could bring to the field of developmental biology.
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ABSTRACT: Clustering of arrestins upon G protein-coupled receptor stimulation is a phenomenon that is well-known but difficult to describe quantitatively due to the size of the clusters close to the diffraction limit of visible light. We introduce a general method to quantitatively investigate the clustering of arrestin following stimulation of the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) using single-molecule super-resolution imaging and coordinate and image-based cluster analysis. We investigated the effect of potent anti-HIV ligands of CCR5 with different pharmacological profiles on arrestin2 cluster formation and found that only the ligands capable of inducing CCR5 internalization induced arrestin2 recruitment and clustering. We further demonstrate that the fraction of arrestin2 molecules found in clusters larger than 100 nm correlates with the magnitude of ligand-induced CCR5 internalization, but not with G protein activation, indicating that recruitment of arrestin2 to CCR5 is independent of G protein activation. Pre-treatment of the cells with the drug cytochalasin D, which blocks actin polymerization, led to the formation of larger clusters, whereas the inhibitor of microtubule polymerization nocodazole had little effect on arrestin2 recruitment, suggesting an active role of actin in the organization and dynamics of these aggregates.Journal of Structural Biology 09/2013; 184(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jsb.2013.09.019 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy.Current opinion in neurobiology 07/2013; 23(6). DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2013.06.008 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TMEM16C belongs to the TMEM16 family, which includes the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels TMEM16A and TMEM16B and a small-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated, nonselective cation channel (SCAN), TMEM16F. We found that in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) TMEM16C was expressed mainly in the IB4-positive, non-peptidergic nociceptors that also express the sodium-activated potassium (KNa) channel Slack. Together these channel proteins promote KNa channel activity and dampen neuronal excitability. DRG from TMEM16C knockout rats had diminished Slack expression, broadened action potentials and increased excitability. Moreover, the TMEM16C knockout rats, as well as rats with Slack knockdown by intrathecal injection of short interfering RNA, exhibited increased thermal and mechanical sensitivity. Experiments involving heterologous expression in HEK293 cells further showed that TMEM16C modulated the single-channel activity of Slack channels and increased its sodium sensitivity. Our study thus reveals that TMEM16C enhances KNa channel activity in DRG neurons and regulates the processing of pain messages.Nature Neuroscience 07/2013; 16(9). DOI:10.1038/nn.3468 · 14.98 Impact Factor