Endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in neurological disease.
ABSTRACT Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction might have an important part to play in a range of neurological disorders, including cerebral ischaemia, sleep apnoea, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the prion diseases, and familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies. Protein misfolding in the ER initiates the well studied unfolded protein response in energy-starved neurons during stroke, which is relevant to the toxic effects of reperfusion. The toxic peptide amyloid β induces ER stress in Alzheimer's disease, which leads to activation of similar pathways, whereas the accumulation of polymeric neuroserpin in the neuronal ER triggers a poorly understood ER-overload response. In other neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, ER dysfunction is well recognised but the mechanisms by which it contributes to pathogenesis remain unclear. By targeting components of these signalling responses, amelioration of their toxic effects and so the treatment of a range of neurodegenerative disorders might become possible.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical studies suggest an increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease in sleep apnea patients.•Inconsistencies and strength of correlation are discussed.•Evidence from neuroimaging is presented.•Experimental studies from animals and cellular models support the causal link.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 10/2014; · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cellular proteins that fail to fold properly result in inactive or disfunctional proteins that can have toxic functions. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a two-tiered cellular mechanism initiated by eukaryotic cells that have accumulated misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An adaptive pathway facilitates the clearance of the undesired proteins; however, if overwhelmed, cells trigger apoptosis by upregulating transcription factors such as C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). A high throughput screen was performed directed at identifying compounds that selectively upregulate the apoptotic CHOP pathway while avoiding adaptive signaling cascades, resulting in a sulfonamidebenzamide chemotype that was optimized. These efforts produced a potent and selective CHOP inducer (AC50 = 0.8 μM; XBP1 > 80 μM), which was efficacious in both mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and a human oral squamous cell cancer cell line, and demonstrated antiproliferative effects for multiple cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel.ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 10/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most human neurodegenerative diseases are sporadic, and appear later in life. While the underlying mechanisms of the progression of those diseases are still unclear, investigations into the familial forms of comparable diseases suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathogenesis. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) is an ER chaperone that is central to ER function. We produced knock-in mice expressing a mutant BiP that lacked the retrieval sequence in order to evaluate the effect of a functional defect in an ER chaperone in multi-cellular organisms. Here we report that heterozygous mutant BiP mice revealed motor disabilities in aging. We found a degeneration of some motoneurons in the spinal cord accompanied by accumulations of ubiquitinated proteins. The defect in retrieval of BiP by the KDEL receptor leads to impaired activities in quality control and autophagy, suggesting that functional defects in the ER chaperones may contribute to the late onset of neurodegenerative diseases.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112837. · 3.53 Impact Factor