Article

Endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in neurological disease.

Department of Medicine, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
The Lancet Neurology (Impact Factor: 21.82). 01/2013; 12(1):105-18. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70238-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction might have an important part to play in a range of neurological disorders, including cerebral ischaemia, sleep apnoea, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the prion diseases, and familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies. Protein misfolding in the ER initiates the well studied unfolded protein response in energy-starved neurons during stroke, which is relevant to the toxic effects of reperfusion. The toxic peptide amyloid β induces ER stress in Alzheimer's disease, which leads to activation of similar pathways, whereas the accumulation of polymeric neuroserpin in the neuronal ER triggers a poorly understood ER-overload response. In other neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, ER dysfunction is well recognised but the mechanisms by which it contributes to pathogenesis remain unclear. By targeting components of these signalling responses, amelioration of their toxic effects and so the treatment of a range of neurodegenerative disorders might become possible.

3 Followers
 · 
170 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the rise of aging populations, new challenges for health care systems are emerging. Degenerative conditions of the central nervous system share a strikingly great deal of similarities, particularly the production and buildup of malfolded proteins. As a result, stress pathways within the endoplasmic reticulum become activated, triggering widespread neuronal apoptosis. New pharmacological compounds targeting this response are emerging as promising treatment strategies. This review examines the current evidence for protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disease states and discusses future mechanisms of therapeutically targeting the endoplasmic reticulum.
    NeuroMolecular Medicine 02/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1007/s12017-015-8346-x · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cellular prion protein (PrPC) consists of a flexible N-terminal tail (FT, aa 23-128) hinged to a membrane-anchored globular domain (GD, aa 129-231). Ligation of the GD with antibodies induces rapid neurodegeneration, which is prevented by deletion or functional inactivation of the FT. Therefore, the FT is an allosteric effector of neurotoxicity. To explore its mechanism of action, we generated transgenic mice expressing the FT fused to a GPI anchor, but lacking the GD (PrPΔ141-225, or "FTgpi"). Here we report that FTgpi mice develop a progressive, inexorably lethal neurodegeneration morphologically and biochemically similar to that triggered by anti-GD antibodies. FTgpi was mostly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it triggered a conspicuous unfolded protein response specifically activating the PERK pathway leading to phosphorylation of eIF2α and upregulation of CHOP ultimately leading to neurodegeration similar to what was observed in prion infection.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117412. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117412 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synaptic plasticity deficits are increasingly recognized as causing the memory impairments which define Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD mouse models, evidence of abnormal synaptic function is present before the onset of cognitive deficits, and presents as increased synaptic depression revealed only when synaptic homeostasis is challenged, such as with suppression of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-evoked calcium signaling. Otherwise, at early disease stages, the synaptic physiology phenotype appears normal. This suggests compensatory mechanisms are recruited to maintain a functionally normal net output of the hippocampal circuit. A candidate calcium-regulated synaptic modulator is nitric oxide (NO), which acts presynaptically to boost vesicle release and glutamatergic transmission. Here we tested whether there is a feedforward cycle between the increased RyR calcium release seen in presymptomatic AD mice and aberrant NO signaling which augments synaptic plasticity. Using a combination of electrophysiological approaches, two-photon calcium imaging, and protein biochemistry in hippocampal tissue from presymptomatic 3xTg-AD and NonTg mice, we show that blocking NO synthesis results in markedly augmented synaptic depression mediated through presynaptic mechanisms in 3xTg-AD mice. Additionally, blocking NO reduces the augmented synaptically evoked dendritic calcium release mediated by enhanced RyR calcium release. This is accompanied by increased nNOS levels in the AD mice and is reversed upon normalization of RyR-evoked calcium release with chronic dantrolene treatment. Thus, recruitment of NO is serving a compensatory role to boost synaptic transmission and plasticity during early AD stages. However, NO's dual role in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration may convert to maladaptive functions as the disease progresses. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356893-10$15.00/0.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2015; 35(17):6893-6902. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4002-14.2015 · 6.75 Impact Factor