ABSTRACT Pemphigoid diseases are a group of well defined autoimmune disorders that are characterised by autoantibodies against structural proteins of the dermal-epidermal junction and, clinically, by tense blisters and erosions on skin or mucous membranes close to the skin surface. The most common of these diseases is bullous pemphigoid, which mainly affects older people and the reported incidence of which in Europe has more than doubled in the past decade. Prognosis and treatments vary substantially between the different disorders and, since clinical criteria are usually not sufficient, direct immunofluorescence microscopy of a perilesional biopsy specimen or serological tests are needed for exact diagnosis. In eight pemphigoid diseases the target antigens have been identified molecularly, which has allowed the development of standard diagnostic assays for detection of serum autoantibodies-some of which are commercially available. In this Seminar we discuss the clinical range, diagnostic criteria, diagnostic assay systems, and treatment options for this group of diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a chronic mucocutaneous autoimmune skin blistering disease. The pathogenic relevance of autoantibodies targeting type VII collagen (COL7) has been well-documented. Therefore, EBA is a prototypical autoimmune disease with a well-characterized pathogenic relevance of autoantibody binding to the target antigen. EBA is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.2 new cases per million and per year. The current treatment of EBA relies on general immunosuppressive therapy, which does not lead to remission in all cases. Therefore, there is a high, so far unmet medical need for the development of novel therapeutic options. During the last 10 years, several novel in vitro and in vivo models of EBA have been established. These models demonstrated a critical role of the genetic background, T cells, and cytokines for mediating the loss of tolerance towards COL7. Neutrophils, complement activation, Fc gamma receptor engagement, cytokines, several molecules involved in cell signaling, release of reactive oxygen species, and matrix metalloproteinases are crucial for autoantibody-induced tissue injury in EBA. Based on this growing understanding of the diseases' pathogenesis, several potential novel therapeutic targets have emerged. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options for EBA are discussed in detail.07/2013; 2013:812029. DOI:10.1155/2013/812029
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ABSTRACT: Autoimmune blistering dermatoses are examples of skin-specific autoimmune disorders that can sometimes represent the cutaneous manifestation of a multiorgan disease due to potential common pathogenic mechanisms. As soon as a distinct autoimmune blistering dermatosis is diagnosed, it is imperative to consider its potential systemic involvement, as well as the autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that are frequently associated with it. In paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome, the internal organs (particularly the lungs) are affected by the autoimmune injury. Pemphigus erythematosus may manifest with overlapping serologic and immunohistologic features of lupus erythematosus. In patients with bullous pemphigoid, there is a greater prevalence of neurologic disease, possibly caused by cross-reactivity of the autoantibodies with isoforms of bullous pemphigoid antigens expressed in the skin and brain. Anti-laminin 332 pemphigoid shows an increased risk for adenocarcinomas. Patients with anti-p200 pemphigoid often suffer from psoriasis. A rare form of pemphigoid with antibodies against the α5 chain of type IV collagen is characterized by underlying nephropathia. Particularly interesting is the association of linear IgA disease or epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with inflammatory bowel disease. Dermatitis herpetiformis is currently regarded as the skin manifestation of gluten sensitivity. Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is part of the clinical spectrum of systemic lupus erythematosus, a prototypic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement.Clinics in dermatology 01/2013; 32(3):364-75. DOI:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2013.11.003 · 1.93 Impact Factor
Article: Gestational pemphigoid[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gestational pemphigoid is a rare pruritic bullous pregnancy associated dermatosis caused by autoantibodies against placental and dermal collagen XVII. Clinically, it is characterized by severe pruritus and blisters on abdominal skin and extremities. Immunofluorescence analysis of perilesional skin is used in the diagnostics and maternal serum BP180-levels reflect the disease activity. Topical steroids and antihistamins usually relieve mild symptoms, but in severe cases oral corticosteroid is the drug-of-choice. Spontaneous recovery is common after parturition but this disease typically recurs in the following pregnancies. Due to the associated risk of prematurity and fetal growth restriction, prenatal monitoring jointly by a dermatologist and an obstetrician is recommended.Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja 01/2013; 129(7):731-8. DOI:10.1186/s13023-014-0136-2