Development of the mammalian axial skeleton requires signaling through the Gαi subfamily of heterotrimeric G proteins.
ABSTRACT 129/SvEv mice with a loss-of-function mutation in the heterotrimeric G protein α-subunit gene Gnai3 have fusions of ribs and lumbar vertebrae, indicating a requirement for Gα(i) (the "inhibitory" class of α-subunits) in somite derivatives. Mice with mutations of Gnai1 or Gnai2 have neither defect, but loss of both Gnai3 and one of the other two genes increases the number and severity of rib fusions without affecting the lumbar fusions. No myotome defects are observed in Gnai3/Gnai1 double-mutant embryos, and crosses with a conditional allele of Gnai2 indicate that Gα(i) is specifically required in cartilage precursors. Penetrance and expressivity of the rib fusion phenotype is altered in mice with a mixed C57BL/6 × 129/SvEv genetic background. These phenotypes reveal a previously unknown role for G protein-coupled signaling pathways in development of the axial skeleton.
- SourceAvailable from: Mara Fornaro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy results in loss of strength and an increased risk of mortality. We found that lysophosphatidic acid, which activates a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy through activation of Gα(i2). Expression of a constitutively active mutant of Gα(i2) stimulated myotube growth and differentiation, effects that required the transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) and protein kinase C. In addition, expression of the constitutively active Gα(i2) mutant inhibited atrophy caused by the cachectic cytokine TNFα (tumor necrosis factor-α) by blocking an increase in the abundance of the mRNA encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 (muscle ring finger 1). Gα(i2) activation also enhanced muscle regeneration and caused a switch to oxidative fibers. Our study thus identifies a pathway that promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and differentiation and demonstrates that Gα(i2)-induced signaling can act as a counterbalance to MuRF1-mediated atrophy, indicating that receptors that act through Gα(i2) might represent potential targets for preventing skeletal muscle wasting.Science Signaling 11/2011; 4(201):ra80. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2002038 · 7.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: B lymphocytes are compartmentalized within lymphoid organs. The organization of these compartments depends upon signaling initiated by G-protein linked chemoattractant receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins Gαi2 and Gαi3 in chemoattractant signaling we created mice lacking both proteins in their B lymphocytes. While bone marrow B cell development and egress is grossly intact; mucosal sites, splenic marginal zones, and lymph nodes essentially lack B cells. There is a partial block in splenic follicular B cell development and a 50-60% reduction in splenic B cells, yet normal numbers of splenic T cells. The absence of Gαi2 and Gαi3 in B cells profoundly disturbs the architecture of lymphoid organs with loss of B cell compartments in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. This results in a severe disruption of B cell function and a hyper-IgM like syndrome. Beyond the pro-B cell stage, B cells are refractory to chemokine stimulation, and splenic B cells are poorly responsive to antigen receptor engagement. Gαi2 and Gαi3 are therefore critical for B cell chemoattractant receptor signaling and for normal B cell function. These mice provide a worst case scenario of the consequences of losing chemoattractant receptor signaling in B cells.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72596. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072596 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Among human birth defect syndromes, malformations affecting the face are perhaps the most striking due to cultural and psychological expectations of facial shape. One such syndrome is auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS), in which patients present with defects in ear and mandible development. Affected structures arise from cranial neural crest cells, a population of cells in the embryo that reside in the pharyngeal arches and give rise to most of the bone, cartilage and connective tissue of the face. Recent studies have found that most cases of ACS arise from defects in signaling molecules associated with the endothelin signaling pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway in both mouse and zebrafish results in loss of identity of neural crest cells of the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch and the subsequent repatterning of these cells, leading to homeosis of lower jaw structures into more maxillary-like structures. These findings illustrate the importance of endothelin signaling in normal human craniofacial development and illustrate how clinical and basic science approaches can coalesce to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of human birth defect syndromes. Further, understanding the genetic basis for ACS that lies outside of known endothelin signaling components may help elucidate unknown aspects critical to the establishment of neural crest cell patterning during facial morphogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Seminars in Medical Genetics 11/2013; 163(4). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.31376 · 3.54 Impact Factor