Long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery: fifteen-year follow-up of adjustable gastric banding and a systematic review of the bariatric surgical literature.
ABSTRACT : To describe the long-term outcomes after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and compare these with the published literature on bariatric surgery.
: Because obesity is a chronic disease, any proposed obesity treatment should be expected to demonstrate long-term durability to be considered effective. Yet for bariatric surgery, few long-term weight loss data are available. We report our 15-year follow-up data after LAGB and provide a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature for weight loss at 10 years or more after bariatric surgical procedures.
: We performed a prospective longitudinal cohort study of LAGB patients using an electronic database system (LapBase) to track progress, measure weight changes, and document revisional procedures. The evolution of the LAGB procedure was recognized, and revisional rates for 3 separate periods between September 1994 and December 2011 were described. In addition, we performed a systematic review of the peer-reviewed published literature collecting all reports that included weight loss data at or beyond 10 years.
: A total of 3227 patients, with a mean age of 47 years and a mean body mass index of 43.8 kg/m, were treated by laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement between September 1994 and December 2011. Seven hundred fourteen patients had completed at least 10 years of follow-up. Follow-up was intact in 81% of patients overall and 78% of those beyond 10 years. There was no perioperative mortality for the primary placement or for any revisional procedures. There was 47.1% of excess weight loss (% EWL) at 15 years [n = 54; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.3] and 62% EWL at 16 years (n = 14; 95% CI = 13.6). There was a mean of 47.0% EWL (n = 714; 95% CI = 1.3) for all patients who were at or beyond 10 years follow-up. Revisional procedures were performed for proximal enlargement (26%), erosion (3.4%), and port and tubing problems (21%). The band was explanted in 5.6%. The need for revision decreased as the technique evolved, with 40% revision rate for proximal gastric enlargements in the first 10 years, reducing to 6.4% in the past 5 years. The revision group showed a similar weight loss to the overall group beyond 10 years. The systematic review of all bariatric procedures with 10 or more years of follow-up showed greater than 50% EWL for all current procedures. The weighted mean at maximum follow-up for LAGB was 54.2% EWL and for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was 54.0% EWL.
: The LAGB study from 1 center demonstrates a durable weight loss with 47% EWL maintained to 15 years. This weight loss occurred regardless of whether any revisional procedures were needed. A systematic review shows substantial and similar long-term weight losses for LAGB and other bariatric procedures.
SourceAvailable from: Konstantinos Vardas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding has become the most popular procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity in Europe. The objectives of this series are to report the results of the 4-year experience of a single surgeon and to define the learning curve. A retrospective review of 156 patients who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding between October 2006 and May 2010 was performed. Patients were separated into 3 groups: group 1 comprised the first 50 patients; group 2 comprised the second 50 patients; and group 3 comprised the last group of patients, with a total of 56 patients. The male-to-female ratio was 1:4 (33 male and 133 female patients). The mean age was 38 years (range, 17-62 years). The mean preoperative body mass index was 44.9 kg/m(2). The mean percent excess weight loss was 41.7% at the 1-year follow-up visit (153 patients, 98%), 49.7% at the 2-year follow-up visit (147 patients, 94%), and 50.2% at the 3-year follow-up visit (127 patients, 81%). The overall complication rate and major complication rate were 15.4% and 3.2%, respectively. There were no deaths. Percent excess weight loss, length of hospitalization (in days), and complication rates were compared among the 3 groups. No significant differences were noted among the groups except in the number of complications (P < .001), but all data were clearly improved in groups 2 and 3. The analyses in this study have documented one more time that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is an effective procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity, achieving >50% excess weight loss at 3 years. It is a procedure with certain complications even when performed by a surgeon with previous experience in laparoscopic surgery. According to our subset analysis, the learning curve is at least 50 procedures.01/2015; 19(1). DOI:10.4293/JSLS.2013.00363
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ABSTRACT: Obesity has become a serious public health problem that has stimulated primordial and primary prevention efforts, and a triad of management options (lifestyle, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions). A growing body of evidence supports the need for a multi-pronged, clinic-based approach that leverages the synergy between pharmaceutical and lifestyle modification. Recent US policy changes-namely, the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act coupled with recognition of obesity as a disease by the American Medical Association-suggest that financial incentives and attitudes towards obesity management are changing. This paradigm shift has implications for current and future obesity pharmacotherapy. However, barriers to pharmacotherapy utilization include patient and physician perceptions of modest efficacy, historical safety issues, regulatory obstacles, and lack of reimbursement. The shifting attitudes and challenges associated not only with a multi-payer system, but also the lack of clearly defined cross-payer reimbursement strategies, prompted a survey to determine coverage for obesity treatment. Participants indicated that federal/state mandates and growth of quality-driven healthcare initiatives will eventually drive wider pharmacotherapy reimbursement within 1-5 years. There are signs that federal/state programs are already moving towards reimbursement by improving quality measures to track obesity outcomes and reduce costs. Future research on clinical and economic outcomes of combination weight-management programs coupled with innovative approaches (e.g., eHealth) in the real-world setting that demonstrate value to patients, healthcare providers, payers, and employers will help reshape obesity management by reducing barriers and broadening reimbursement coverage for anti-obesity pharmacotherapy.PharmacoEconomics 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40273-015-0264-0 · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: Medications for weight loss[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity together with their comorbidities have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. The need for well tolerated, effective interventions has become increasingly urgent. Here we review the pharmacology, benefits, and risks of Western and Chinese medications used for weight loss. Lifestyle interventions for weight loss are efficacious, but have had limited long-term durability. Bariatric surgery is very effective for weight loss and reversal of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but it is invasive and not consistently durable in all patients. Recent studies show that newer Western pharmaceuticals and some traditional Chinese medications may be effective for appropriate patients in need of weight loss. New Western medications, notably lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide, are more effective and possibly safer than older medications but have important side-effects. Chinese herbal medicines may have efficacy similar to that of older Western medications and with few side-effects, but data are limited. We suggest that for appropriate patients, in particular those with or at high risk for T2DM, the judicious use of these medications with lifestyle modification is justified. This may be particularly true in Asia where T2DM develops at a low BMI, though more data are needed to support this concept.Current Opinion in Endocrinology Diabetes and Obesity 02/2015; DOI:10.1097/MED.0000000000000140 · 3.77 Impact Factor