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Sex determination of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis cv. Arizona) by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (Impact Factor: 0.57). 01/2011;

ABSTRACT Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) is a dioecious shrub that produces fruits in female
plants. Its seeds stores liquid wax which is used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and plastic industries.
This species is generally propagated by seed. The sex of seedlings is not distinguishable by cytological
and seed cultivation methods. This investigation was carried out to study the sex-specific random
amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in thirteen 4-year-old jojoba plants from two provinces of
Iran and DNAs of those populations were extracted by CTAB method. Out of the 20 tested primers, two
primers, namely F1 and F10, produced 460 and 680 bp fragments, respectively and were importantly
recognized to distinguish between female and male plants, accordingly. Also, the results of the ratio
difference test showed that, more efficient sex determination of jojoba seedlings is done using both F1
and F10 primers due to gene cooperation between them. The preliminary results of this study for sex
determination would help the recognition of potential fruit-bearing seedlings for having high yield per
hectare in horticultural systems. Furthermore, the findings would help saving time and economic
resources in jojoba breeding programs.

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    ABSTRACT: Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), is a medicinal and oil-yielding, multi-purpose species of the family Simmondsiaceae. The most valuable product of jojoba seed is the liquid wax or jojoba oil which is used extensively in the cosmetic and bio-fuel industry. Propagation of jojoba is possible using conventional methods, but it is time consuming and cumbersome owing to long rotation periods, male-biased population, and long flowering and seed set time. The development of an efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite for a number of biotechnological interventions for the improvement of jojoba, such as genetic transformation, production of useful metabolites in vitro, etc. During the past decade, therefore, several attempts have been made for in vitro propagation of jojoba. Organogenesis has been achieved in this species from mature as well as juvenile explants. Present communication reports an overview of the in vitro regeneration of jojoba via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Factors affecting organogenesis as well as production of synthetic seeds using shoot tips and axillary buds have also been discussed; however, efforts need to be made to develop an efficient genetic transformation system in jojoba. The purpose of this review is to focus upon the current information on in vitro propagation and biotechnological advances made in jojoba.
    Plant Biotechnology Reports 01/2012; 6(2). · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider is a dioecious shrub in which female plants are economically more important than the male plants, as seeds produced by the female plants store liquid wax ester that is extensively used in cosmetic industry. Sex of jojoba individuals can be determined only at flowering stage which comes after 3–4 years of seeding. Since, population of jojoba is male biased, so, to identify female plants at seedling stage, more reliable and robust male-specific sequence characterized amplified region marker was developed from male-specific inter-simple sequence repeat marker. During homology searching, no DNA sequence with significant similarity to male-specific inter-simple sequence repeat marker was found in non-redundant database of National Center for Biotechnology Information. Sequence characterized amplified region primer pair designed, based on the sequence of inter-simple sequence repeat marker, (GenBank accession no. HQ166029.1) amplified a fragment approx. 1000 bp in male plants only. This fragment was completely absent in female plants. Authentication of marker was done by using samples taken from two provinces of India.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences 09/2013;

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