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Sex determination of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis cv. Arizona) by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (Impact Factor: 0.57). 01/2011;

ABSTRACT Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) is a dioecious shrub that produces fruits in female
plants. Its seeds stores liquid wax which is used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and plastic industries.
This species is generally propagated by seed. The sex of seedlings is not distinguishable by cytological
and seed cultivation methods. This investigation was carried out to study the sex-specific random
amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in thirteen 4-year-old jojoba plants from two provinces of
Iran and DNAs of those populations were extracted by CTAB method. Out of the 20 tested primers, two
primers, namely F1 and F10, produced 460 and 680 bp fragments, respectively and were importantly
recognized to distinguish between female and male plants, accordingly. Also, the results of the ratio
difference test showed that, more efficient sex determination of jojoba seedlings is done using both F1
and F10 primers due to gene cooperation between them. The preliminary results of this study for sex
determination would help the recognition of potential fruit-bearing seedlings for having high yield per
hectare in horticultural systems. Furthermore, the findings would help saving time and economic
resources in jojoba breeding programs.

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    ABSTRACT: Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), is a medicinal and oil-yielding, multi-purpose species of the family Simmondsiaceae. The most valuable product of jojoba seed is the liquid wax or jojoba oil which is used extensively in the cosmetic and bio-fuel industry. Propagation of jojoba is possible using conventional methods, but it is time consuming and cumbersome owing to long rotation periods, male-biased population, and long flowering and seed set time. The development of an efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite for a number of biotechnological interventions for the improvement of jojoba, such as genetic transformation, production of useful metabolites in vitro, etc. During the past decade, therefore, several attempts have been made for in vitro propagation of jojoba. Organogenesis has been achieved in this species from mature as well as juvenile explants. Present communication reports an overview of the in vitro regeneration of jojoba via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Factors affecting organogenesis as well as production of synthetic seeds using shoot tips and axillary buds have also been discussed; however, efforts need to be made to develop an efficient genetic transformation system in jojoba. The purpose of this review is to focus upon the current information on in vitro propagation and biotechnological advances made in jojoba.
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    ABSTRACT: DNA fingerprinting studies have been carried out with the physiologically mature male and female plants of Jojoba using 80 ISSR primers with a view to generate sex-linked markers. After bulk segregant analysis, two unique ISSR markers, viz. ISSR848 1500 and VIS11 1317 have been developed which can be used for determining the sex at the seedling stage. Of the eighty primers tested on the pooled male DNA and pooled female DNA samples, six ISSR primers were found to be associated with sex expression. Of the six, only two primers ISSR848 and VIS11 generated unique male sex specific bands of *1,500 and *1,300 bp which were consecutively present in all the male genotypes and absent in all the respective female genotypes. The remaining four primers when tried on individuals of different geno-types were confined to their sex specificity in only two female genotypes and absent in their male counter-parts. One of the male-sex specific markers, VIS11 1317 has also been cloned and sequenced which showed homology with a sex linked gene, DD44 from dioecious Silene species. Furthermore, VIS11 1317 was converted into a male sex-specific sequence tagged sites (STS) marker of 584 bp. The male specific STS marker thus developed has been verified and validated on 100 populations of male and female individuals from ten different genotypes of Jojoba to endorse the diagnostic reliability of the STS marker. This can gainfully be employed for screening of sex at seedling stage which would be quite helpful for uprooting the undesired plants, thereby, saving resources like labor, water, fertilizers and space for highly desirable female plants. Keywords Dioecious Á Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) Á Sex specific marker Á Simmondsia chinensis Á Sequence tagged sites Introducion Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider, a monotypic, multipurpose dioecious shrub of family Simmondsi-aceae from Sonoron Deserts of California is being cultivated increasingly all over the globe for its commercial seed oil which is known as liquid wax, mainly composed of linear wax esters (97 %) (Gentry 1958; Shevachmana et al. 2004). It has been claimed as ''liquid Gold from deserts'' due to its immense utility in the different industries, i.e. toiletries, phar-maceuticals, leather, plastic, etc. Jojoba oil is excep-tionally being used in the formulations of numerous cosmetic byproducts as it has unique ability to penetrate the skin. The oil is non toxic, biodegradable, quite stable, resists oxidation and does not get rancid even at 285 °C, therefore, is used as high temperature and high pressure lubricant in heavy machineries
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    ABSTRACT: There is an ample genetic diversity of plants with medicinal importance around the globe and this pool of genetic variation serves as the base for selection as well as for plant improvement. Thus, identification, character-ization and documentation of the gene pool of medicinal plants are essential for this purpose. Genomic information of many a medicinal plant species has increased rapidly since the past decade and genetic resources available for domestication and improvement programs include genome sequencing, expressed sequence tags sequencing, transcript profiling, gene transmit, molecular markers in favor of mapping and breeding. In recent years, multiple endeavors have been undertaken for genomic characterization of medicinal plant species with the aid of molecular markers for sustainable utilization of gene pool, its conservation and future studies. Recent advancement in genomics is so fast that only some researches have been published till date and to a large extent documentation is restricted to electronic resources. Whole genome profiling of the identified medicinal plant species, carried out by several researchers, based on the DNA fingerprinting, is well documented in the present review. This review will facilitate preparing a database of the widely used, economically important medicinal plant species, based on their genomic organization. Keywords AFLP Á ESTs Á Molecular marker Á Polymerase chain reaction Á RAPD Á RFLP Á SNP Á SSR Á DNA barcoding Abbreviations ESTs Expressed sequence tags RFLP Restriction fragment length polymorphism RAPD Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA AFLP Amplified fragment length polymorphism SSR Simple sequence repeat ISSR Inter simple sequence repeat SNP Single-nucleotide polymorphism UPGMA Unweighted pair group method arithmetic average Introduction
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