Versican processing by a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin-1 repeats proteinases-5 and -15 facilitates myoblast fusion.
ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle development and regeneration requires the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Since the enzymatic proteolysis of a hyaluronan and versican-rich matrix by ADAMTS versicanases is required for developmental morphogenesis, we hypothesised that the clearance of versican may facilitate the fusion of myoblasts during myogenesis. Here, we used transgenic mice and an in vitro model of myoblast fusion, C2C12 cells, to determine a potential role for ADAMTS versicanases. Versican processing was observed during in vivo myogenesis at the time when myoblasts were fusing to form multinucleated myotubes. Relevant ADAMTS genes, chief among them Adamts5 and Adamts15, were expressed both in developing embryonic muscle and differentiating C2C12 cells. Reducing the levels of Adamts5 mRNA in vitro impaired myoblast fusion, which could be rescued with catalytically active but not the inactive forms of ADAMTS5 or ADAMTS15. The addition of inactive ADAMTS5, ADAMTS15 or fulllength V1 versican effectively impaired myoblast fusion. Finally, the expansion of a hyaluronan and versican-rich matrix was observed upon reducing the levels of Adamts5 mRNA in myoblasts. These data indicate that these ADAMTS proteinases contribute to the formation of multinucleated myotubes such as is necessary for both skeletal muscle development and during regeneration, by remodeling a versican-rich pericellular matrix of myoblasts. Our study identifies a possible pathway to target for the improvement of myogenesis in a plethora of diseases including cancer cachexia, sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy.
- SourceAvailable from: Sumeda Nandadasa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the significance for fetal nourishment in mammals, mechanisms of umbilical cord vascular growth remain poorly understood. Here, the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 is shown to be necessary for murine umbilical cord vascular development. Restricting it to the cell surface using a gene trap allele, Adamts9(Gt), impaired umbilical vessel elongation and radial growth via reduced versican proteolysis and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Both Adamts9(Gt) and conditional Adamts9 deletion revealed that ADAMTS9 produced by mesenchymal cells acted non-autonomously to regulate smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, differentiation, and orthogonal reorientation during growth of the umbilical vasculature. In Adamts9(Gt/Gt), we observed interference with PDGFRβ signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway, which regulates cytoskeletal dynamics during SMC rotation. In addition, we observed disrupted Shh signaling and perturbed orientation of the mesenchymal primary cilium. Thus, ECM dynamics is a major influence on umbilical vascular SMC fate, with ADAMTS9 acting as its principal mediator. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell Reports 06/2015; 11:1-10. DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.005 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence has demonstrated that a specialized extracellular matrix exists in the mammalian brain, and this glycoprotein-rich matrix contributes to many aspects of brain development and function. The most prominent supramolecular assembly of these ECM glycoproteins are perineuronal nets, specialized lattice-like structures that surround the cell bodies and proximal neurites of select classes of interneurons. Perineuronal nets are composed of lecticans – a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans [CSPGs] that includes aggrecan, brevican, neurocan, and versican. The presence of these lattice-like structures emerge late in postnatal brain development and coincides with the ending of critical periods of brain development. Despite our knowledge of the presence of lecticans in perineuronal nets and their importance in regulating synaptic plasticity, we know little about the development or distribution of extracellular proteases that are responsible for their cleavage and turnover. A subset of the large “A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs” (ADAMTS) family of extracellular proteases is responsible for endogenously cleaving lecticans. We therefore explored the expression pattern of 2 aggrecan-degrading ADAMTS family members, ADAMTS15 and ADAMTS4, in hippocampus and neocortex. Here, we show that both lectican-degrading metalloproteases are present in these brain regions and each exhibits a distinct temporal and spatial expression pattern. Adamts15 mRNA is expressed exclusively by Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons during synaptogenesis, whereas, Adamts4 mRNA is exclusively generated by telencephalic oligodendrocytes during myelination. Thus, ADAMTS15 and ADAMTS4 not only exhibit unique cellular expression patterns but their developmental upregulation by these cell types coincides with critical aspects of neural development. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 03/2015; 523(4). DOI:10.1002/cne.23701 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In many cells the hyaluronan receptor CD44 mediates the endocytosis of hyaluronan and its delivery to endosomes / lysosomes. The regulation of this process remains largely unknown. In most extracellular matrices hyaluronan is not present as a free polysaccharide but often in complex with other small proteins and macromolecules such as proteoglycans. This is especially true in cartilage where hyaluronan assembles into an aggregate structure with the large proteoglycan termed aggrecan. In this study we observed that when purified aggrecan was added to FITC-conjugated hyaluronan, no internalization of hyaluronan was detected. This suggested that the overall size of the aggregate prevented hyaluronan endocytosis and furthermore that proteolysis of the aggrecan was a required prerequisite for local, cell-based turnover of hyaluronan. To test this hypothesis, limited C-terminal digestion of aggrecan was performed to determine if a size range of aggrecan exists that was permissive of hyaluronan endocytosis. Our data demonstrate that only limited degradation of the aggrecan monomer was required to allow for hyaluronan internalization. When hyaluronan was combined with partially degraded, dansyl chloride-labeled aggrecan, blue fluorescent aggrecan was also visualized within intracellular vesicles. It was also determined that sonicated hyaluronan that is of smaller molecular size was internalized more readily than high molecular mass hyaluronan. However, the addition of intact aggrecan to 5 and 10 s sonicated hyaluronan chains re-blocked their endocytosis while aggregates containing 15 s sonicated hyaluronan were internalized. These data suggest that hyaluronan endocytosis is regulated in large part by the extracellular proteolytic processing of hyaluronan-bound proteoglycan. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2015; 290(15). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.643171 · 4.60 Impact Factor