"Our findings thus also have a potential application in broader goal setting research by highlighting the value of distinguishing between present and future ideal states as reference values. Whilst researchers have recognized that self-regulation is differentially affected by positive and negative reference values (Carver & Scheier, 1982; Elliot et al., 1997), or obligations versus aspirations (Higgins, 1998), much less attention has been given to reference values reflecting an ideal present versus as ideal future (Boldero & Francis, 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence has linked proactivity at work to positive outcomes. Yet little research to date has investigated whether employees’ proactive behavior in organizations can be facilitated through training and development. Nor has research considered which variables shape employees’ responses to such interventions. We investigate the effects on proactivity of two theoretically distinct training and development interventions in a randomized field experiment with police officers and police support staff (N = 112). We hypothesized that a problem-focused intervention, which made discrepancies between the status quo and the ideal present more salient, would lead to increases in individual task proactivity; whereas a vision-focused intervention, which made discrepancies between the status quo and an ideal future more salient, would increase organization member proactivity. Intervention effects were moderated by role overload and future orientation, respectively. Only individuals with high levels of role overload increased their individual task proactivity as a result of the problem-focused intervention, and only individuals high in future orientation increased their organization member proactivity as a result of the vision-focused intervention. Our study integrates different cybernetic perspectives on how proactivity is motivated, and provides novel insights into moderators of interventions designed to capture these different mechanisms. From a practical perspective, our study supports organizations seeking to implement training and development interventions, and helps them to determine who might benefit most from interventions.
Journal of Management 01/2016; DOI:10.1177/0149206315602531 · 6.86 Impact Factor
"Regulatory focus theory (RFT; Higgins, 1998) is a more general model of self-regulation which built upon SDT by distinguishing between a promotion system that is concerned with nurturance, advancement, and fulfilling hopes (ideals) and a prevention system that is concerned with security, safety, and fulfilling duties (oughts). RFT emphasizes that promotion failure and prevention failure, along with their accompanying affective and motivational experiences, were psychological states. "
"Prospective studies have consistently found that people make more progress on want-to (compared with have-to) goals in a variety of domains including health, academic, and work-related goals (e.g., Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005; Koestner, Otis, Powers, Pelletier, & Gagnon, 2008). This distinction between autonomous/want-to and controlled/ have-to motivation has long been the focus of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), which has distinguished the locus of causality (i.e., why a goal is pursued) from the regulatory focus (i.e., how a goal is pursued; Higgins, 1998). While research on regulatory focus has examined the effects of promotion and prevention focus on experiences of temptation and self-control (e.g., Freitas, Liberman, & Higgins, 2002; Dholakia, Gopinath, Bagozzi, & Nataraajan, 2006), research has yet to look at the role of the motivation for goal pursuit on these experiences. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-regulation has been conceptualized as the interplay between controlled and impulsive processes; however, most research has focused on the controlled side (i.e., effortful self-control). The present studies focus on the effects of motivation on impulsive processes, including automatic preferences for goal-disruptive stimuli and subjective reports of temptations and obstacles, contrasting them with effects on controlled processes. This is done by examining people's implicit affective reactions in the face of goal-disruptive "temptations" (Studies 1 and 2), subjective reports of obstacles (Studies 2 and 3) and expended effort (Study 3), as well as experiences of desires and self-control in real-time using experience sampling (Study 4). Across these multiple methods, results show that want-to motivation results in decreased impulsive attraction to goal-disruptive temptations and is related to encountering fewer obstacles in the process of goal pursuit. This, in turn, explains why want-to goals are more likely to be attained. Have-to motivation, on the other hand, was unrelated to people's automatic reactions to temptation cues but related to greater subjective perceptions of obstacles and tempting desires. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for self-regulation and motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record
(c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 05/2015; DOI:10.1037/pspp0000045 · 5.08 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.