Effect of antiretroviral therapy on clinical and immunologic disease progression in HIV positive children: One-year follow-up study

Pediatrics Department, Government Medical College, Surat, India.
Journal of family & community medicine 09/2012; 19(3):178-83. DOI: 10.4103/2230-8229.102318
Source: PubMed


To study the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on clinical, immunologic, and nutritional progression of disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children for 1 year.
The study included 54 children aged 1.5-15 years who registered at the ART center, Surat, from August 2007 to August 2009. During the study period, the children were followed-up at 6 monthly intervals up to 1 year after starting ART. World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and CD4 cell count as per national guidelines, and nutritional status were used to measure clinical and immunologic progression of disease up to 1 year.
Out of 54 children, mother-to-child transmission was reported in 96.2% children; for 74% of the children, both parents were HIV positive. All the children were classified according to WHO clinical staging into 4 stages and as per CD4 cell count (%), followed up at 6 and 12 months and the benefits with ART reported. At 12 months follow-up, 15% of the study group children had died. Both mean CD4 count and a relative percentage showed significant increase (P < 0.01) in the study group 1 year after ART.
The present study reports benefits of ART in terms of clinical and immunologic progression of disease, nutritional status of HIV-infected children after 1 year of ART.

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    • "In an effort to curb the epidemics as well as to improve the quality of life among HIV-infected people, multiple strategies including treatment of patients with ART have been implemented worldwide. The introduction of ART has resulted in a remarkable reduction of HIV-related mortality and morbidity [3-6] as a result of rapid immunological restoration [3,7,8] and viral suppression [3,8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has brought a remarkable reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity both in adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Adherence to ART is the key to the successful treatment of patients as well as containment of drug resistance. Studies based on caregivers' report have shown that adherence to ART among children is generally good. However, subjective methods such as caregivers' report are known to overestimate the level of adherence. This study determined the rate of adherence and its predictors using unannounced home-based pill count and compared the result with caregivers' report in a tertiary referral hospital in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 1, 2011 and January 30, 2012. The study participants were 210 children on ART and their caregivers attending pediatric ART clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa University. Caregivers were interviewed at the ART clinic using a structured questionnaire. Then, unannounced home-based pill count was done 7 days after the interview. Caregiver-reported adherence in the past 7 days prior to interview was 93.3%. Estimated adherence using unannounced home-based pill count was found, however, to be 34.8%. On multivariate logistic regression model, children with married [aOR = 7.85 (95% CI: 2.11,29.13)] and widowed/divorced [aOR = 7.14 (95% CI: 2.00,25.46)] caregivers, those who were not aware of their HIV sero-status [aOR = 2.35 (95% CI:1.09, 5.06)], and those with baseline WHO clinical stage III/IV [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.21, 8.40] were more likely to adhere to their ART treatment. On the other hand, children on d4T/3Tc/EFV combination [OR = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.53)] were less likely to adhere to their treatment. Caregivers' forgetfulness and child refusal to take medication were reported as the major reasons for missing doses. The level of adherence based on unannounced home-based pill count was unacceptably low. Interventions are urgently needed to improve adherence to ART among children at TAH. Besides, a longitudinal study measuring adherence combined with clinical parameters (viral load and CD4 count) is needed to identify a simple and reliable measure of adherence in the study area.
    BMC Pediatrics 09/2013; 13(1):132. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-132 · 1.93 Impact Factor