Exceptionally high conservation of the MHC class I-related gene, MR1, among mammals
Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 470-1192, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan. Immunogenetics
(Impact Factor: 2.23).
11/2012; 65(2). DOI: 10.1007/s00251-012-0666-5
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related gene, MR1, is a non-classical MHC class IA gene and is encoded outside the MHC region. The MR1 is responsible for activation of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells expressing semi-invariant T cell receptors in the presence of bacteria, but its ligand has not been identified. A unique characteristic of MR1 is its high evolutionary conservation of the α1 and α2 domains corresponding to the peptide-binding domains of classical MHC class I molecules, showing about 90 % amino acid identity between human and mouse. To clarify the evolutionary history of MR1 and identify more critically conserved residues for the function of MR1, we searched for the MR1 gene using jawed vertebrate genome databases and isolated the MR1 cDNA sequences of marsupials (opossum and wallaby). A comparative genomic analysis indicated that MR1 is only present in placental and marsupial mammals and that the gene organization around MR1 is well conserved among analyzed jawed vertebrates. Moreover, the α1 and α2 domains, especially in amino acid residues presumably shaping a ligand-binding groove, were also highly conserved between placental and marsupial MR1. These findings suggest that the MR1 gene might have been established at its present location in a common ancestor of placental and marsupial mammals and that the shape of the putative ligand-binding groove in MR1 has been maintained, probably for presenting highly conserved component(s) of microbes to MAIT cells.
Available from: Yuko Ota
- "CD1 proteins bind and present lipid antigens to both conventional and unconventional T cells providing a way for the immune system to recognize and respond to both self and nonself (exogenous as well as endogenous) lipid and glycolipid antigens. Similarly, homologs of the MHC-1-like-related protein 1 (MR1) gene have been described in a number of different mammalian species, including placentals and marsupials (Tsukamoto et al. 2013). "
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ABSTRACT: Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are a family of highly diverse and rapidly evolving genes wherein gene numbers, organization, and expression markedly differ even among closely related species rendering class Ib phylogeny difficult to establish. Whereas among mammals there are few unambiguous class Ib gene orthologs, different amphibian species belonging to the anuran subfamily Xenopodinae exhibit an unusually high degree of conservation among multiple class Ib gene lineages. Comparative genomic analysis of class Ib gene loci of two divergent (~65 million years) Xenopodinae subfamily members Xenopus laevis (allotetraploid) and Xenopus tropicalis (diploid) shows that both species possess a large cluster of class Ib genes denoted as Xenopus/Silurana nonclassical (XNC/SNC). Our study reveals two distinct phylogenetic patterns among these genes: some gene lineages display a high degree of flexibility, as demonstrated by species-specific expansion and contractions, whereas other class Ib gene lineages have been maintained as monogenic subfamilies with very few changes in their nucleotide sequence across divergent species. In this second category, we further investigated the XNC/SNC10 gene lineage that in X. laevis is required for the development of a distinct semi-invariant T cell population. We report compelling evidence of the remarkable high degree of conservation of this gene lineage that is present in all 12 species of the Xenopodinae examined, including species with different degrees of ploidy ranging from 2, 4, 8 to 12 N. This suggests that the critical role of XNC10 during early T cell development is conserved in amphibians.
Immunogenetics 04/2014; 66(6). DOI:10.1007/s00251-014-0774-5 · 2.23 Impact Factor
Available from: Paul F. Lasko
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ABSTRACT: The Drosophila kep1 gene encodes an RNA binding protein related to the murine QUAKING apoptotic inducer. We have previously shown that kep1 can induce apoptosis when transfected into different cell lines. To better define the role of Kep1 in apoptosis, we generated kep1 null flies. These flies were viable, but females displayed reduced fertility, with approximately half of the eggs laid from kep1- homozygotes failing to hatch. In addition, loss of kep1 suppressed GMR-rpr-mediated apoptosis in the Drosophila eye, and kep1 mutant flies had increased susceptibility to Escherichia coli infection. We found that Kep1 bound dredd RNA in vitro, and that extracts prepared from kep1 mutant ovaries had markedly reduced proteolytic cleavage activity toward the caspase-8 target substrate IETD-7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin. We observed increased levels of the beta isoform of dredd mRNA in kep1 mutants as compared with wild-type. Taken together, our results suggest that Kep1 regulates apoptosis by influencing the processing of dredd RNA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2003; 100(4):1814-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0236048100 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucosa-associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are an evolutionarily conserved innate-like T cell subset that recognizes antigens presented by MR1 molecules. These antigens include vitamin B derivatives shared by many potentially pathogenic microbes, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. It was recently discovered that MAIT cells decay numerically and functionally in HIV-1 infection, and that they fail to recover despite several years of effective suppression of viral replication by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we briefly discuss the roles of MAIT cells and their loss in HIV immunopathogenesis. We furthermore propose that the persistence of MAIT cell loss on ART needs to be taken into account when assessing the immunological response to treatment, and when treatment should commence. The importance of this T cell subset in HIV-1 infection needs further study, and interventions to restore the MAIT cell compartment should be considered.
(C) 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
AIDS 04/2013; 27(16). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283620726 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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