Heart failure (HF) is a common and growing health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates. Thromboembolism is a major contributor to the poor prognosis of HF patients. HF independently increases the risk of thromboembolism, and the high incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in HF patients further adds to the risk of thromboembolic events. The reviewed evidence for the efficacy of anticoagulation in HF patients shows a potential preventive effect of oral anticoagulation in thromboembolism-in particular, risk reduction for stroke-but this is offset by an increased risk of major bleeding. However, given the inhomogeneity of the HF cohorts, the diagnosis of AF warranting oral anticoagulation, the increasing awareness of the potential of bleeding risk assessment, and the advantages of the new oral anticoagulants, the future of thromboembolic prevention in HF patients could very well be brighter than it appears and help improve outcomes for this large group of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with endothelial perturbation (as defined by flow-mediated endothelial-dependent vasodilation [FMD, an index of endothelial dysfunction], circulating endothelial cells [CECs, an index of endothelial damage], or plasma indexes of endothelial damage/dysfunction [eg, von Willebrand factor (vWf) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM)]) and raised plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, a peptide hormone associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and prognosis). However, the relations between these parameters are unclear.
To test the hypothesis that there is a relation between endothelial perturbation (defined by FMD, CECs, vWf, and sTM) and BNP in CHF, we studied these indexes in 30 patients with CHF who were compared with 20 age-matched control subjects. FMD, CECs, plasma vWf, and BNP levels (but not sTM) were all abnormal in patients with CHF. There were significant inverse correlations between FMD and vWf (P=0.001), CECs (P=0.002) and BNP (P=0.006) as well as a positive correlation between CECs and vWf (P=0.032). In multivariate analysis, BNP (P<0.001) and FMD (P<0.001) were both independently associated with CHF.
Ample evidence of endothelial cell damage/dysfunction in CHF cannot be fully explained by the variance in plasma BNP per se. Therefore, the routes by which these indexes influence the pathophysiology of CHF as well as predict adverse outcomes may be independent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with heart failure are at increased risk of sudden death and death attributed to progressive pump failure. We assessed the effect of candesartan on cause-specific mortality in patients enrolled in the Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program.
The CHARM program consisted of 3 component trials that enrolled patients with symptomatic heart failure: CHARM-Alternative (n=2028; LVEF<=40% [corrected] and ACE intolerant), CHARM-Added (n=2548; LVEF<=40%, [corrected] already on ACE inhibitors), and CHARM-Preserved (n=3023; LVEF >40%). Patients were randomized to candesartan, titrated to 32 mg QD, or placebo and were followed up for a median of 37.7 months. All deaths were reviewed by a blinded adjudication committee and categorized according to prespecified definitions on the basis of a narrative and source documentation. The number and rate of deaths by cause were calculated for each of the component trials and the overall program. Of all the patients, 8.5% died suddenly, and 6.2% died of progressive heart failure. Candesartan reduced both sudden death (HR 0.85 [0.73 to 0.99], P=0.036) and death from worsening heart failure (HR 0.78 [0.65 to 0.94], P=0.008). These reductions were most apparent in the patients with LVEF<=40% [corrected].
Candesartan reduced sudden death and death from worsening heart failure in patients with symptomatic heart failure, although this reduction was most apparent in patients with systolic dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from epidemiologic, autopsy, Holter monitoring, and electrophysiologic studies support the hypothesis that acute myocardial ischemia, even in the absence of myocardial infarction, is a critical component of the pathophysiology of sudden coronary death. Acute myocardial ischemia superimposed upon ventricles damaged from previous infarctions has been demonstrated to enhance the generation of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. This is a retrospective analysis of 6,797 participants in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction prevention and treatment trials. Both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards modeling were used to study the association of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy with the risk for sudden cardiac death. The following covariates were adjusted for in the analysis: age, ejection fraction, gender, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, a history of angina, prior infarction, prior revascularization, and the regular use of beta blockers, diuretics, digoxin, antiarrhythmic agents, or enalapril. The overall incidence of sudden cardiac death per 100 patient-years of follow-up was 2.24%. In multivariate analysis, antiplatelet and anticoagulant monotherapy each remained independently associated with a reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death: antiplatelet therapy with a 24% reduction (relative risk [RR] 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.95) and antiplatelet monotherapy with a 32% reduction (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.48-0.96). Thus, in patients with moderate to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction resulting from coronary artery disease, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy are each associated with a reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death.
The American Journal of Cardiology 05/1997; 79(7):909-13. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9149(97)00013-1 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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