False-Negative Results of Endoscopic Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Infected Patients

Department of Gastroenterology, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan.
Pathology research international 11/2012; 2012(6):854146. DOI: 10.1155/2012/854146
Source: PubMed


Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a rare endothelial neoplasm mainly involving the skin, but it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract KS, a common site of visceral involvement in AIDS, is important, but endoscopic biopsy carries a risk of false-negative results (FNRs) due to its submucosal appearance. This study sought to determine the rate and causes of FNR for endoscopic biopsy of GI-KS lesions. Endoscopic biopsy samples of 116 GI-KS lesions were reviewed retrospectively. All GI-KS lesions were confirmed to be resolved following KS therapy. FNRs were yielded for 41 of the lesions (35.3%). Among upper and lower GI sites, the esophagus was the only site significantly associated with FNRs (


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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the diagnostic values of hematoxylin and eosin (HE), D2-40, CD31, CD34, and HHV-8 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in gastrointestinal Kaposi's sarcoma (GI-KS) in relation to endoscopic tumor staging. Biopsy samples (n = 133) from 41 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were reviewed. GI-KS was defined as histologically negative for other GI diseases and as a positive clinical response to KS therapy. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) was compared in relation to lesion size, GI location, and macroscopic appearances on endoscopy. GI-KS was confirmed in 84 lesions (81.6%). Other endoscopic findings were polyps (n = 9), inflammation (n = 4), malignant lymphoma (n = 4), and condyloma (n = 2), which mimicked GI-KS on endoscopy. ROC-AUC of HE, D2-40, blood vessel markers, and HHV-8 showed results of 0.83, 0.89, 0.80, and 0.82, respectively. For IHC staining, the ROC-AUC of D2-40 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of HE staining only. In the analysis of endoscopic appearance, the ROC-AUC of HE and IHC showed a tendency toward an increase in tumor staging (e.g., small to large, patches, and polypoid to SMT appearance). D2-40 was significantly (P < 0.05) advantageous in the upper GI tract and for polypoid appearance compared with HE staining. The diagnostic value of endothelial markers and HHV-8 staining was found to be high, and its accuracy tended to increase with endoscopic tumor staging. D2-40 will be useful for complementing HE staining in the diagnosis of GI-KS, especially in the upper GI tract and for polypoid appearance.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm among HIV-infected individuals. The frequency of involvement of KS in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the associated epidemiological, immune, endoscopic, and histopathological features in HIV-infected patients, were evaluated in this study. Methods: A review of the medical and endoscopy reports of 1428 HIV-infected patients, who had undergone upper GI endoscopy at the Endoscopy Service, Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto between January 1999 and June 2009, was performed. Clinical, epidemiological, immunological, endoscopic, and histological data were collected. Results: Twenty-seven (1.9%) patients were diagnosed with GI KS. Patients were predominantly male (81.5%). Sexual activity was the main route of HIV transmission (81.5%). Cutaneous involvement was noted in 21 patients (78%). Fifteen patients (55%) received highly active antiretroviral therapy for a mean duration of 12.6 weeks (range 2-52 weeks) before endoscopy. GI lesions were mainly found in the stomach (55%). Analysis of the immunohistochemical methods HHV8 LNA-1, CD31, and CD34 for the diagnosis of gastric KS indicated high agreement (kappa. = 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.94). There was no relationship between CD4 levels (p=0.34) or HIV viral load (p=0.99) and HHV8 LNA-1 positivity in gastric KS. Conclusions: GI KS is an infrequent finding in patients with HIV infection. Among those with GI KS, 80% had concomitant skin lesions. Immunohistochemical methods for CD31, CD34, and LNA-1 were important tools in the diagnostic assessment of lesions suggestive of KS in the GI tract. Further studies are required to confirm these data, and the need for routine endoscopic investigation of the GI tract in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous KS should be assessed.
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