Influence of the TSH receptor gene on susceptibility to Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy.
ABSTRACT A large gene region, called GD-1, was first described by this laboratory as linked to Graves' disease (GD) and included the gene for the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Recent studies have now suggested an association of TSHR intronic polymorphisms with GD. We have taken the opportunity to examine a population of well-characterized patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) typed for an additional thyroid susceptibility gene, the immunoregulatory gene for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), to examine its relationship with the susceptibility to GD endowed by TSHR gene polymorphisms.
We used TSHR-SNP-rs2268458, located in intron 1 of the TSHR gene, measured using standard PCR-RFLP procedures, as our marker for the TSHR gene association. We genotyped 200 patients with GD, 83 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and 118 healthy controls (all female Caucasians).
The allele and genotype frequencies from GD patients, but not HT patients, were significantly different from controls. The frequency of the combined genotype (allele) CC + TC was significantly higher in GD patients versus controls, suggesting that the C-containing genotype increased the risk for GD in a dominant manner (p = 0.018, odds ratio [OR] = 1.8). When compared with CTLA-4 (A/G)(49) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), we were unable to demonstrate additive risk in patients with established AITD. Further, subsetting the patients (n = 120) into those with clinically significant Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) showed no association with the TSHR SNP.
These results demonstrated that the intronic TSHR-SNP-rs2268458 was associated with GD, but not with HT, thus indicating that the TSHR gene has the potential to increase susceptibility to GD. However, we were not able to demonstrate any additive risk with the CTLA-4 (A/G)(49) SNP, which is, therefore, an independent risk factor for AITD. This suggested that, within the limits of the study population, each of these two genes provided a small contribution to GD susceptibility and that neither was essential. In addition, there was no evidence for the TSHR gene association adding to the risk of developing GO. Direct functional analyses are now needed to help explain the mechanisms of this TSHR gene susceptibility to GD.
Article: Cloning and sequencing of a 1.3 kb variant of human thyrotropin receptor mRNA lacking the transmembrane domain[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We amplified human thyroidal cDNA using oligonucleotide primers designed to reveal putative human thyrotropin receptor (hTSHR) mRNA variants encoding the extracellular, ligand-binding domain but lacking the transmembrane domain. Whereas the major 4.3 kb hTSHR mRNA species was not amplified to detectable levels, several shorter products were detected. A strongly amplified 1 kb product was cloned and sequenced. It contained coding sequences at the 5′ end which were colinear with exons 1–8 of the hTSHR gene, encoding most of the extracellular domain. This was followed at the 3′ end by additional coding and noncoding information not present in the 4.3 kb transcript. A probe specific for the 5′ end recognized polyadenylated thyroidal transcripts of 4.3, 1.7, and 1.3 kb, indicating the presence of several hTSHR mRNA variants. A probe specific for the 3′ end recognized only the 1.3 kb transcript. The level of the 1.3 kb variant (hTSHR-v1.3 mRNA) was about half that of the 4.3 kb hTSHR mRNA and twice that of the 1.7 kb variant. The presence of a thyroidal mRNA encoding both the signal peptide and ligand-binding region of the hTSHR, but not the seven transmembrane helices, provides the potential to produce soluble receptors which could play important roles in thyroid physiology and/or autoimmune thyroid disease.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/1992; · 2.48 Impact Factor
Article: Analysis of the CTLA-4, CD28, and inducible costimulator (ICOS) genes in autoimmune thyroid disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene on 2q33 is associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). Our earlier study in 56 families showed linkage of 2q33 to the presence of thyroid antibodies (TAbs). The goals of this study were to confirm the linkage of the 2q33 region to TAbs, to fine map this region, and study the ICOS gene. We performed a linkage study in an expanded data set of 99 multiplex AITD-TAb families (529 individuals). The highest two-point LOD score of 2.9 was obtained for marker D2S325 on 2q33. To fine map this locus, we genotyped 238 Caucasian AITD patients and 137 controls for five additional markers in the linked locus, which contained the CTLA-4, CD28, and ICOS genes. The A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism at position 49 of CTLA-4 was associated with AITD (P=0.01, OR=1.5), while markers inside CD28 and ICOS were not. Functional studies have shown that the G allele was associated with reduced inhibition of T-cell proliferation by CTLA-4. We concluded that: (1) the AITD gene in the 2q33 locus is the CTLA-4 gene and not the CD28 or ICOS genes; and (2) the G allele is associated with decreased function of CTLA-4.Genes and Immunity 01/2004; 4(8):586-93. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Familial clustering of Graves' disease indicates a genetic etiology. Searches for genetic factors additional to the known human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association have implicated the gene for the TSH receptor (TSHR). We analyzed the linkage and association among three recently described microsatellite markers within the TSHR introns in Graves' disease in large multiply affected Welsh and English families (223 members, 44 affected individuals). Linkage analysis under a dominant model strongly rejected the hypothesis that TSHR is linked to Graves' disease in these families (lod score = -4.53). More detailed analyses also failed to provide evidence for linkage; these included combined segregation and linkage analysis, correction for HLA-DR3 status, allowance for the levels of thyroid autoantibodies in unaffected pedigree members, consideration of a recessive model for the disease, and linkage disequilibrium between disease and marker alleles. We also considered the possibility of a genetic heterogeneity of Graves' disease and thus analyzed separately the different families with a similar result. Although these results cannot eliminate a minor role of the TSHR gene locus in the genetics of Graves' disease, they argue against it being a major genetic determinant in this pathology.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 11/1996; 81(10):3483-6. · 6.50 Impact Factor