Nicotine-induced Ca2+-myristoyl switch of neuronal Ca2+ sensor VILIP-1 in hippocampal neurons: a possible crosstalk mechanism for nicotinic receptors.
ABSTRACT Visinin-like protein (VILIP-1) belongs to the neuronal Ca2+ sensor family of EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins that regulate a variety of Ca2+-dependent signal transduction processes in neurons. It is an interaction partner of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and increases surface expression level and agonist sensitivity of the receptor in oocytes. Nicotine stimulation of nicotinic receptors has been reported to lead to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration by Ca2+-permeable nAChRs, which in turn might lead to activation of VILIP-1, by a mechanism described as the Ca2+-myristoyl switch. It has been postulated that this will lead to co-localization of the proteins at cell membranes, where VILIP-1 can influence functional activity of alpha4-containing nAChRs. In order to test this hypothesis we have investigated whether a nicotine-induced and reversible Ca2+-myristoyl switch of VILIP-1 exists in primary hippocampal neurons and whether pharmacological agents, such as antagonist specific for distinct nAChRs, can interfere with the Ca2+-dependent membrane localization of VILIP-1. Here we report, that only alpha7- but not alpha4-containing nAChRs are able to elicit a Ca2+-dependent and reversible membrane-translocation of VILIP-1 in interneurons as revealed by employing the specific receptor antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine and methylallylaconitine. The nAChRs are associated with processes of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons and they have been implicated in the pathology of CNS disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. VILIP-1 might provide a novel functional crosstalk between alpha4- and alpha7-containing nAChRs.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic nicotine exposure gives rise to neural adaptations that change whole cell physiology and behaviour mainly by interacting with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The major nicotine-induced neuroadaptation is the up-regulation of brain nAChRs by means of cell-delimited post-translational mechanisms. We review what is known of the processes regulating nAChR assembly, degradation and trafficking, and how nicotine-induced modulation of these processes leads to nAChR up-regulation and changes in downstream neuronal plasticity at molecular, cellular and circuit level.Biochemical pharmacology 07/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Redox control of proteins that form disulfide bonds upon oxidative challenge is an emerging topic in the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of protein function. We have investigated the role of the neuronal calcium sensor protein visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) as a novel redox sensor in a cellular system. We have found oxidative stress to trigger dimerization of VILIP-1 within a cellular environment and identified thioredoxin reductase responsible to facilitate the re-monomerization of the dimeric protein. Dimerization is modulated by calcium and not dependent on the myristoylation of VILIP-1. Furthermore, we show by side-directed mutagenesis that dimerization is exclusively mediated by Cys187. As a functional consequence, VILIP-1 dimerization modulates the sensitivity of cells to an oxidative challenge. We have investigated whether dimerization of VILIP-1 occurs in two different animal models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and detected soluble VILIP-1 dimers to be significantly enriched in the spinal cord at phenotypic disease onset. Moreover, VILIP-1 is part of ALS-specific protein aggregates. We show for the first time that the C-terminus of VILIP-1, containing Cys187, might represent a novel redox sensitive motif and that VILIP-1 dimerization and aggregation are hallmarks of ALS. This suggests that VILIP-1 dimers play a functional role in integrating the cytosolic calcium concentration and the oxidative status of the cell. Furthermore, a loss of VILIP-1 function due to protein aggregation in ALS could be relevant in the pathophysiology of the disease.Free Radical Biology & Medicine 04/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Classical genetic studies show the heritability of cigarette smoking is 0.4-0.6, and that multiple genes confer susceptibility and resistance to smoking. Despite recent advances in identifying genes associated with smoking behaviors, the major source of this heritability and its impact on susceptibility and resistance are largely unknown. Operant self-administration (SA) of intravenous nicotine is an established model for smoking behavior. We recently confirmed that genetic factors exert strong control over nicotine intake in isogenic rat strains. Because the processing of afferent dopaminergic signals by nucleus accumbens shell (AcbS) is critical for acquisition and maintenance of motivated behaviors reinforced by nicotine, we hypothesized that differential basal gene expression in AcbS accounts for much of the strain-to-strain variation in nicotine SA. We therefore sequenced the transcriptome of AcbS samples obtained by laser capture microdissection from 10 isogenic adolescent rat strains and compared all RNA transcript levels with behavior. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, a systems biology method, found 12 modules (i.e., unique sets of genes that covary across all samples) that correlated (p<0.05) with amount of self-administered nicotine; 9 of 12 correlated negatively, implying a protective role. PCR confirmed selected genes from these modules. Chilibot, a literature mining tool, identified 15 genes within 1 module that were nominally associated with cigarette smoking, thereby providing strong support for the analytical approach. This is the first report demonstrating that nicotine intake by adolescent rodents is associated with the expression of specific genes in AcbS of the mesolimbic system, which controls motivated behaviors. These findings provide new insights into genetic mechanisms that predispose or protect against tobacco addiction.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86214. · 3.53 Impact Factor