Nicotine-induced Ca2+-myristoyl switch of neuronal Ca2+ sensor VILIP-1 in hippocampal neurons: a possible crosstalk mechanism for nicotinic receptors.
ABSTRACT Visinin-like protein (VILIP-1) belongs to the neuronal Ca2+ sensor family of EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins that regulate a variety of Ca2+-dependent signal transduction processes in neurons. It is an interaction partner of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and increases surface expression level and agonist sensitivity of the receptor in oocytes. Nicotine stimulation of nicotinic receptors has been reported to lead to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration by Ca2+-permeable nAChRs, which in turn might lead to activation of VILIP-1, by a mechanism described as the Ca2+-myristoyl switch. It has been postulated that this will lead to co-localization of the proteins at cell membranes, where VILIP-1 can influence functional activity of alpha4-containing nAChRs. In order to test this hypothesis we have investigated whether a nicotine-induced and reversible Ca2+-myristoyl switch of VILIP-1 exists in primary hippocampal neurons and whether pharmacological agents, such as antagonist specific for distinct nAChRs, can interfere with the Ca2+-dependent membrane localization of VILIP-1. Here we report, that only alpha7- but not alpha4-containing nAChRs are able to elicit a Ca2+-dependent and reversible membrane-translocation of VILIP-1 in interneurons as revealed by employing the specific receptor antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine and methylallylaconitine. The nAChRs are associated with processes of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons and they have been implicated in the pathology of CNS disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. VILIP-1 might provide a novel functional crosstalk between alpha4- and alpha7-containing nAChRs.
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ABSTRACT: A full-length clone coding for the rat alpha 7 nicotinic receptor subunit was isolated from an adult brain cDNA library and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. A significant proportion of the current through alpha 7-channels is carried by Ca2+. This Ca2+ influx then activates a Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- conductance, which is blocked by the chloride channel blockers niflumic and fluflenamic acid. Increasing the external NaCl concentration caused the reversal potentials for the alpha 7-channels and the Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- channels to be shifted in opposite directions. Under these conditions, agonist application activates a biphasic current with an initial inward current through alpha 7-channels followed by a niflumic acid- and fluflenamic acid-blockable outward current through Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- channels. A relative measure of the Ca2+ permeability was made by measuring the shift in the reversal potential caused by adding 10 mM Ca2+ to the external solution. Measurements made in the absence of Cl-, to avoid artifactual current through Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels, indicate that alpha 7-homooligomeric channels have a greater relative Ca2+ permeability than the other nicotinic ACh receptors. Furthermore, alpha 7-channels have an even greater relative Ca2+ permeability than the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors. High levels of alpha 7-transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the cerebral cortex. These results imply that alpha 7-containing receptors may play a role in activating calcium-dependent mechanisms in specific neuronal populations of the adult rat limbic system.Journal of Neuroscience 03/1993; 13(2):596-604. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the density and distribution of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors on hippocampal neurons, we have combined infrared videomicroscopy with a nanorobotic micromanipulator system and studied the receptor-mediated currents by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Acetylcholine or GABA was applied by pressure ejection onto a small segment of either cell soma or dendrite, and the resulting current was measured in cultured hippocampal neurons by using a whole-cell pipette positioned at the cell soma. Type IA nicotinic currents, sensitive to blockade by methyllycaconitine (1 nM) and alpha-bungarotoxin and associated with alpha 7-subunit-containing nAChRs, type II currents, sensitive to blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (100 nM) subserved by alpha 4 beta 2 nAChRs, and GABA-mediated currents were evoked when the agonists were applied to either cell soma or the dendrites. Analysis of the current amplitude with respect to the membrane area covered by the applied agonist provided an estimation of the receptor density along the somato-dendritic axis of the hippocampal neurons. Such analysis revealed: 1) a nonuniform distribution for the receptor types studied; 2) a higher density of nAChR and GABA receptors at the dendrites than at the soma; and 3) an increasing density for both nAChR subtypes with distance from the center of the cell soma, but increasing and then decreasing density for the GABA receptor. Exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to colchicine (100 nM for 3 days) produced a dramatic reduction in the dendritic branching, and this morphological feature was associated with a significant decrease in the receptor density, such an effect being more prominent for nAChRs than for GABA receptors. Given the high Ca+2 permeability of nAChRs, the dendritic localization of nAChRs suggest that they are involved in modulating the synaptic efficacy at the level of the dendrites.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/1997; 279(3):1491-506. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is expressed to very different extents in distinct rat strains in vivo. This may correlate with differences in learning ability. We investigated whether the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 contributes to differences in long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning in freely moving hooded Lister (HL) and Wistar rats. High-frequency tetanization (HFT) generated robust CA1 LTP in Wistar rats (> 24 h) and incremental potentiation in HL rats. The mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP; 1.8 microg), applied intracerebrally, impaired LTP from approximately 60 min onwards in Wistar and from 24 h in HL rats. HFT generated LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Wistar rats (> 24 h), which was blocked by MPEP, and MPEP-resistant short-term depression in HL rats. Training for 10 days in an eight-arm radial maze revealed no working memory differences, but better reference memory performance in Wistar compared with HL rats. Daily application of MPEP (1.8 microg) impaired working and reference memory in Wistar rats. In HL rats, working memory was impaired but reference memory was unaffected. Western blot analysis revealed lower expression of mGluR5 in HL compared with Wistar rats. MGluR1 expression was equivalent. These data reveal striking mGluR5-dependent differences in spatial learning in different rat strains, which correlate to synaptic plasticity and mGluR5 expression levels.Cerebral Cortex 12/2005; 15(11):1703-13. · 6.83 Impact Factor