The metabolic syndrome consists of a constellation of clinical and biochemical risk factors that cluster together and heighten the risk for atherogenesis, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Established risk cardiovascular factors like hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and glucose intolerance occur in the setting of insulin resistance and central adiposity, with genetic and environmental influences modulating the ultimate risk. Chronic insults to the endothelium take its toll in the form of silent as well as clinically evident cardiovascular events. The cellular and vascular accompaniments have shed some light into the underlying pathophysiology. Heightened, low-grade inflammatory processes as well as a continuum of vascular insults ranging from early endothelial derangements to advanced atherosclerosis have been examined. In recent years there has been an explosion of basic and clinical knowledge related to the metabolic syndrome. Although dyslipidaemia is considered a traditional risk component for the syndrome, its qualitative aspects, genetically determined subfractions, and variation in proatherogenic tendency have generated renewed interest and debate. New targets within the dyslipidaemic spectrum that have differing clinical relevance are being evaluated. The effect of heredity, lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapeutic agents, and supplements is being investigated. Further research into the impact of dyslipidemia and inflammation as both pathophysiologic risk factors and objects for targeted therapy in the metabolic syndrome should deepen our understanding and unravel answers to the underlying dynamics in this global epidemic.
"Although dyslipidemia is considered as a traditional risk component for the metabolic syndrome, its qualitative aspects, genetically determined subfractions and variation in proatherogenic tendency have generated renewed interest and debate . Different cholesterol concentrations were reported in diabetes caused by single-gene mutations in children and young adults [2, 3]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A general problem of supervised remotely. sensed image classification assumes prior knowledge to be available for all thematic classes that are present in the considered data set. However, the ground truth map representing this prior knowledge usually does not really, describe all the land cover typologies in the image and the generation of a complete training set represents a time-consuming, difficult and expensive task. This problem may play a relevant role in remote sensing data analysis, since it affects the classification performances of supervised classifiers, which erroneously assign each sample drawn from an unknown class to one of the known classes. In the present paper, a classification strategy is proposed, which allows the identification of samples drawn from unknown classes, through the application of a suitable Bayesian decision rule. The proposed approach is based on support vector machines (SVMs) for the estimation of probability density, functions and on a recursive procedure to generate prior probabilities estimates for both known and unknown classes. For experimental purposes, both a synthetic data set and two real data sets are employed.
Advances in Techniques for Analysis of Remotely Sensed Data, 2003 IEEE Workshop on; 11/2003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) < 85 cm) and which anthropometric index, dBW or changes in WC (dWC), is more strongly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in men without abdominal obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.
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