Tissue Engineering of the Intestine in a Murine Model.

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Saban Research Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California.
Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2012; DOI: 10.3791/4279
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) has successfully been used to rescue Lewis rats after massive small bowel resection, resulting in return to preoperative weights within 40 days.(1) In humans, massive small bowel resection can result in short bowel syndrome, a functional malabsorptive state that confers significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs including parenteral nutrition dependence, liver failure and cirrhosis, and the need for multivisceral organ transplantation.(2) In this paper, we describe and document our protocol for creating tissue-engineered intestine in a mouse model with a multicellular organoid units-on-scaffold approach. Organoid units are multicellular aggregates derived from the intestine that contain both mucosal and mesenchymal elements,(3) the relationship between which preserves the intestinal stem cell niche.(4) In ongoing and future research, the transition of our technique into the mouse will allow for investigation of the processes involved during TESI formation by utilizing the transgenic tools available in this species.(5)The availability of immunocompromised mouse strains will also permit us to apply the technique to human intestinal tissue and optimize the formation of human TESI as a mouse xenograft before its transition into humans. Our method employs good manufacturing practice (GMP) reagents and materials that have already been approved for use in human patients, and therefore offers a significant advantage over approaches that rely upon decellularized animal tissues. The ultimate goal of this method is its translation to humans as a regenerative medicine therapeutic strategy for short bowel syndrome.

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    ABSTRACT: Short bowel syndrome causes significant morbidity and mortality. Tissue-engineered intestine may serve as a viable replacement. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) has previously been generated in the mouse model from donor cells that were harvested and immediately reimplanted; however, this technique may prove impossible in children who are critically ill, hemodynamically unstable, or septic. We hypothesized that organoid units (OU), multicellular clusters containing epithelium and mesenchyme, could be cryopreserved for delayed production of TESI.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges: donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Design Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After four weeks, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded, or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. Results We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush border and digestive enzymes. Conclusions This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue including progenitor cells whether derived from mouse or human cells. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology- Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.
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