Polyphenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) Fruits

Department of Natural and Informatics Sciences, Faculty of Central European Studies, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Drazovska 4, SK-949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic. .
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.42). 12/2012; 17(12):14490-14509. DOI: 10.3390/molecules171214490
Source: PubMed


Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid)-active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

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    • "Bee pollen has been used as health food supplements for many years, even used as medicines (Linskens and Jorde, 1997) due to its abundant nutrients, especially phenolic compounds. Usually, bee pollen contains vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, hesperidin, chrysin, naringenin, myricetin, rutin, baicalein, kaempferol, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, morin and isorhamnetin, isoquercetin (Freire et al., 2012; Jurikova et al., 2012; Chu et al., 2007; Bonvehí et al., 2001). We have previously reported that bee pollen of Schisandra chinensis possesses strong antioxidant activities and can protect effectively against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl 4 (Cheng et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The protective effect of extract of Crataegus pinnatifida (Rosaceae) pollen (ECPP) on the DNA damage response to oxidative stress was investigated and assessed with an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay and pBR322 plasmid DNA breaks in site-specific and non-site-specific systems. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, individual phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), radical scavenging activity, FRAP, and chelating activity) were also determined. The results showed that ECPP possessed a strong ability to protect DNA from being damaged by hydroxyl radicals in both the site-specific system and the non-site-specific system. It also exhibited a cytoprotection effect in mouse lymphocytes against H2O2-induced DNA damage. These protective effects may be related to its high total phenolic content (17.65±0.97 mg GAE/g), total flavonoid content (8.04±0.97 mg Rutin/g), strong free radical scavenging activity and considerable ferrous ion chelating ability (14.48±0.21 mg Na2EDTA/g).
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.015 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Clinical evidence indicates that some hawthorn extracts may increase the exercise tolerance of patient with congestive heart failure [5]. The pharmacological effects were believed to mainly possess a number of beneficial effects such as cardiotonic [5], hypolipidemic [6] [7], and antioxidative activities [8]. Analytical results suggest that the procyanidins are the major active constituents in the Chinese hawthorn, which consists of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since with the increased use of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of phytonutrients for daily supplement has gained considerable attention worldwide, we examine the effect and molecular mechanism of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E. Br. (hawthorn) by quantifying the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis on diabetes and dyslipidemia in high-fat (HF)-fed C57BL/6J mice. Firstly, mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally hawthorn extract (including 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg/day extracts) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or vehicle for 4 weeks afterward. Diabetic mice showed an increase in plasma glucose and insulin. Glucose lowering was comparable with Rosi-treated mice. This study demonstrated that hawthorn was effective in ameliorating the HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Hawthorn extract significantly increases the hepatic protein contents of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and reduces expression of phosphenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose production. Furthermore, hawthorn decreased in hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol synthesis (including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), SREBP2). An increase in expressions of apoA-I gene and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was detected in HF-fed mice treated with high dose hawthorn. Our data suggest that hawthorn extract are capable of decreasing glucose production and triacylglycerol synthesis by inducing AMPK-phosphorylation and hawthorn is a candidate source of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic phytonutrients factors.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 04/2013; 2013(4, part 2):597067. DOI:10.1155/2013/597067 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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