Exhaled breath condensate cytokines and pH in pediatric asthma and atopic dermatitis.
ABSTRACT Some studies have proposed exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a noninvasive tool for monitoring airway inflammation in children. Moreover, atopic dermatitis (AD) has been considered a risk factor for the development of asthma. This study was designed to assess the EBC pH and the exhaled concentration of cytokines produced by T-helper (Th) 1, Th2, and T regulatory cells in asthmatic children and AD and to verify if their concentrations are affected by a short course of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). We assessed the mean levels of pH, interferon (IFN) gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 in EBC of children with asthma (n=20) and AD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=20) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Variations of pH and cytokine concentration in response to ICS (flunisolide, 500 microg/day, for 2 weeks), were also investigated in asthmatic patients. We found that the mean condensate pH value in patients with asthma and AD was significantly lower when compared with that of controls (6.9+/-0.2 and 7.0+/-0.2 versus 7.4+/-0.4; p<0.0001) and it significantly increased in asthmatic patients after treatment (7.2+/-0.2 versus 6.9+/-0.2; p=0.003). In addition, the IL-4/IFN-gamma ratio was significantly higher in children with asthma and in those with AD when compared with controls (9.72+/-2.00 and 9.70+/-2.0 versus 8.04+/-2.6; p<0.001) and that it decreased in asthmatic patients after ICS (6.4+/-5.4 versus 9.72+/-2.00; p<0.01). We observed that exhaled IL-10 levels were significantly higher in children with asthma compared with those of controls (18.8+/-8.9 versus 4.2+/-1.0; p<0.002). IL-10 did not significantly increase after treatment with steroids. No such finding was documented in children with AD. Our data suggest that EBC IL-10 levels are different in asthmatic patients compared with healthy children, but they are insensitive markers in monitoring therapy with ICS. Moreover, children with AD show an EBC pH and an exhaled pattern of Th2/Th1 cytokines similar to that of asthmatic patients.
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ABSTRACT: Research suggests that psychological stress can exacerbate allergies, but relatively little is known about the effect of stress on mucosal immune processes central to allergic pathophysiology. In this study, we quantified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-4 concentrations in saliva (S) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during final exams and at midsemester among 23 healthy and 21 allergic rhinitis individuals. IFN-γs decreased during exams for both groups while VEGF(EBC) increased (and increases in VEGFs were a trend). Elevated negative affect ratings predicted higher VEGF(EBC) in allergic individuals. IFN-γ(EBC) increased in healthy individuals early during exams and then decreased, while allergic individuals showed a decrease in IFN-γ(EBC) throughout final exams. These findings suggest that psychological stress can suppress cellular immune function among allergic individuals while increasing VEGF.Psychophysiology 11/2012; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exhaled breath condensate is a promising, non-invasive, diagnostic sample obtained by condensation of exhaled breath. Starting from a historical perspective of early attempts of breath testing towards the contemporary state-of-the-art breath analysis, this review article focuses mainly on the progress in determination of non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. The mechanisms by which the aerosols/droplets of non-volatile compounds are formed in the airways are discussed with methodological consequences for sampling. Dilution of respiratory droplets is a major problem for correct clinical interpretation of the measured data and there is an urgent need for standardization of EBC. This applies also for collection instrumentation and therefore various commercial and in-house built devices are described and compared with regard to their design, function and collection parameters. The analytical techniques and methods for determination of non-volatile compounds as potential markers of oxidative stress and lung inflammation are scrutinized with an emphasis on method suitability, sensitivity and appropriateness. The relevance of clinical findings for each group of possible non-volatile markers of selected pulmonary diseases and methodological recommendations with emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration that is essential for future development into a fully validated clinical diagnostic tool are given.Analytica chimica acta 12/2013; 805:1-18. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate nitric oxide and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-13 in the exhaled breath of children with allergic rhinitis (AR), before and after intranasal allergen exposure. A total of 49 children with AR – comprising 20 who also had episodic asthma (AR+A) and 29 without asthma (AR) – were compared with 34 healthy controls. Nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air (eNO) and IL-6, IL-8 and IL-13 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) were measured in winter, outside the natural allergen exposure season, before and after an intranasal allergen challenge. The mean concentrations of eNO, IL-6 and IL-13 were significantly higher in the two AR groups. The concentration of IL-8 was below the assay detection limit in all EBC samples. The intranasal allergen challenge increased IL-13/EBC levels in both AR groups, but did not influence mean concentrations of eNO, IL-6 or IL-8. No challenge-related changes in IL-13/EBC were observed in the allergen-exposed controls or placebo-exposed children. Despite local application, the intranasal allergen challenge increased IL-13/EBC concentration in the AR children. As EBC reflects the status of lower airway segments, our observation may support the 'united airways' hypothesis, suggesting a functional link between the upper and lower airways.Acta Paediatrica 04/2014; 103(4):e148-53. · 1.97 Impact Factor