Decreased T-Cell Repertoire Diversity in Sepsis: A Preliminary Study
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:: Septic syndromes are the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units. In patients, the occurrence of sepsis-induced immune suppression is associated with delayed mortality, although the exact role of lymphocyte dysfunctions is not well established. The objective of this study was to investigate T-cell receptor diversity, an important feature of T-cell response, in patients with septic shock. DESIGN:: Preliminary prospective observational study. SETTING:: Adult intensive care units in a university hospital. SUBJECTS:: Patients with septic shock (n = 41) sampled twice after the onset of shock (early after inclusion [day 1] and at the end of the first week [day 7]). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Using a novel molecular biology technique, the combinatorial diversity of human T-cell receptor β-chain (TRB locus) was measured in peripheral blood. Patients with septic shock presented with a marked decreased T-cell receptor diversity after the onset of shock in comparison with normal values. Importantly, in paired samples, a very steep recovery slope of T-cell receptor diversity, never described in other clinical situations, was observed between day 1 and day 7 (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon's paired test). Decreased T-cell receptor diversity was associated with mortality (log-rank test, p = 0.0058; hazard ratio = 4.48; 95% confidence interval 1.96-53.32), and the development of nosocomial infections (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). CONCLUSION:: Our results show for the first time that septic patients present with a marked decreased T-cell receptor diversity that returned rapidly toward normal values over time. This opens novel cognitive research perspectives that deserve to be investigated in experimental models of sepsis. After confirmation in larger cohorts of these preliminary results, T-cell receptor diversity measurements may become a crucial tool to monitor immune functions in ICU patients.
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ABSTRACT: Septic syndromes induce immune alterations that have long been considered solely an overwhelming pro-inflammatory response. Increasing evidence now suggests that, after the first pro-inflammatory hours, sepsis is accompanied by the occurrence of a systemic immune failure. Here, novel perspectives regarding sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations will be discussed in the context of a recently published study investigating overtime evolution of co-inhibitory lymphocyte receptor expressions in patients with severe sepsis.Critical care (London, England) 07/2012; 16(4):140. DOI:10.1186/cc11416
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ABSTRACT: Septic syndrome is the leading cause of mortality for critically ill patients worldwide. Patients develop lymphocyte dysfunctions associated with increased risk of death and nosocomial infections. In this study, we performed preclinical experiments testing the potential of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) as a lymphostimulating therapy in sepsis. Circulating IL-7 and soluble IL-7 receptor α-chain (soluble CD127) concentrations were measured in plasma, whereas cellular CD127 expression was evaluated on circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes from septic shock patients and healthy volunteers. Lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-γ production, STAT5 phosphorylation, and B cell lymphoma 2 induction were measured ex vivo in response to T cell stimulation in the presence or not of rhIL-7. We show that IL-7 pathway (plasmatic IL-7 concentration and cellular and soluble CD127 expressions) is not overtly altered and remains activable in septic patients. Most importantly ex vivo treatment of patients' cells with rhIL-7 significantly improves lymphocyte functionality (CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte proliferations, IFN-γ production, STAT5 phosphorylation, and B cell lymphoma 2 induction after stimulation). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report of rhIL-7 ability to restore normal lymphocyte functions in septic patients. These results support the rational for initiating a clinical trial testing rhIL-7 in septic shock.The Journal of Immunology 10/2012; 189(10). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1202062 · 5.36 Impact Factor
Article: Diversity: It Is a Good ThingCritical care medicine 01/2013; 41(1):348. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318270de85 · 6.15 Impact Factor