Dependence on prescription opioids (PO) is a growing problem. Although most research with buprenorphine has focused on heroin-dependent populations, we hypothesize that individuals dependent on PO display characteristics that may predict different outcomes in treatment, particularly in short-term taper procedures in which comorbidities such as pain conditions may complicate taper.
This secondary data analysis examined differences in outcomes between PO users (n = 90) and heroin users (n = 426) after a buprenorphine taper. Data were collected in a multisite randomized clinical trial conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network at 11 study sites across the United States. After a 4-week buprenorphine induction/stabilization phase, 516 opioid-dependent individuals were randomized into 1 of 2 taper lengths (7 vs 28 days) to assess the association between taper length and outcome. The primary outcome was measured by urine drug test for opioids at the end of the taper period. Craving, withdrawal, and buprenorphine dose were also examined.
After controlling for baseline demographic and drug use differences between the opioid use groups, results indicate that a higher percentage of the PO group (49%) provided an opioid-free urine drug specimen at the end of taper compared with the heroin group (36%; χ(2)(1) = 6.592, P < 0.010).
Short-term taper is not recommended as a stand-alone treatment; however, patients may taper from buprenorphine as part of a treatment plan. Despite greater comorbidity, PO users seem to have favorable taper outcomes compared with heroin users. Further studies are required to examine longer-term treatment outcomes.
"Third, primary PO abusers may respond favorably to a detoxification treatment approach. For example, previously-reported comparisons of primary PO and heroin abusers have noted that PO abusers experienced less severe withdrawal during buprenorphine induction, provided more opioid-negative urine samples during a buprenorphine taper, were more likely to be retained in a buprenorphine taper, and were more likely to be opioid-negative at the end of a buprenorphine taper, compared to primary heroin abusers (Nielsen et al., 2012, 2013, 2014). Finally, the recent increases in adolescent opioid abuse warrant exploring potential alternatives to long-term maintenance (Zacny et al., 2003; McLellan and Turner, 2008; Volkow and McLellan, 2011), particularly given evidence that long-term opioid maintenance may alter cognitive functions (Gruber et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Tramadol is an atypical analgesic with monoamine and modest mu opioid agonist activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: (1) the efficacy of extended-release (ER) tramadol in treating prescription opioid withdrawal and (2) whether cessation of ER tramadol produces opioid withdrawal.
Prescription opioid users with current opioid dependence and observed withdrawal participated in this inpatient, two-phase double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. In Phase 1 (days 1-7), participants were randomly assigned to matched oral placebo or ER tramadol (200 or 600 mg daily). In Phase 2 (days 8-13), all participants underwent double blind crossover to placebo. Breakthrough withdrawal medications were available for all subjects. Enrollment continued until 12 completers/group was achieved.
Use of breakthrough withdrawal medication differed significantly (p<0.05) among groups in both phases; the 200mg group received the least amount in Phase 1, and the 600 mg group received the most in both phases. In Phase 1, tramadol 200mg produced significantly lower peak ratings than placebo on ratings of insomnia, lacrimation, muscular tension, and sneezing. Only tramadol 600 mg produced miosis in Phase 1. In Phase 2, tramadol 600 mg produced higher peak ratings of rhinorrhea, irritable, depressed, heavy/sluggish, and hot/cold flashes than placebo. There were no serious adverse events and no signal of abuse liability for tramadol.
ER tramadol 200mg modestly attenuated opioid withdrawal. Mild opioid withdrawal occurred after cessation of treatment with 600 mg tramadol. These data support the continued investigation of tramadol as a treatment for opioid withdrawal.
Drug and alcohol dependence 06/2013; 133(1). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.010 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review current evidence on buprenorphine-naloxone (bup/nx) for the treatment of opioid-use disorders, with a focus on strategies for clinical management and office-based patient care.
Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. Consensus reports, guidelines published, and other authoritative sources were also included in this review. Apart from expert guidelines, data included in this review constitute level 1 evidence.
Bup/nx is a partial μ-opioid agonist combined with the opioid antagonist naloxone in a 4:1 ratio. It has a lower abuse potential, carries less stigma, and allows for more flexibility than methadone. Bup/nx is indicated for both inpatient and ambulatory medically assisted withdrawal (acute detoxification) and long-term substitution treatment (maintenance) of patients who have a mild-to-moderate physical dependence. A stepwise long-term substitution treatment with regular monitoring and follow-up assessment is usually preferred, as it has better outcomes in reducing illicit opioid use, minimizing concomitant risks such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C transmission, retaining patients in treatment and improving global functioning.
Bup/nx is safe and effective for opioid detoxification and substitution treatment. Its unique pharmaceutical properties make it particularly suitable for office-based maintenance treatment of opioid-use disorder.
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