Activation of D1 Dopamine Receptors Induces Emergence from Isoflurane General Anesthesia
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:: A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that selective dopamine receptor activation induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. METHODS:: In adult rats, we tested the effects of chloro-APB (D1 agonist) and quinpirole (D2 agonist) on time to emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. We then performed a dose-response study to test for chloro-APB-induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. SCH-23390 (D1 antagonist) was used to confirm that the effects induced by chloro-APB are specifically mediated by D1 receptors. In a separate group of animals, spectral analysis was performed on surface electroencephalogram recordings to assess neurophysiologic changes induced by chloro-APB and quinpirole during isoflurane general anesthesia. RESULTS:: Chloro-APB decreased median time to emergence from 330 to 50 s. The median difference in time to emergence between the saline control group (n = 6) and the chloro-APB group (n = 6) was 222 s (95% CI: 77-534 s, Mann-Whitney test). This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0082). During continuous isoflurane anesthesia, chloro-APB dose-dependently restored righting (n = 6) and decreased electroencephalogram δ power (n = 4). These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with SCH-23390. Quinpirole did not restore righting (n = 6) and had no significant effect on the electroencephalogram (n = 4) during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS:: Activation of D1 receptors by chloro-APB decreases time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia and produces behavioral and neurophysiologic evidence of arousal during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. These findings suggest that selective activation of a D1 receptor-mediated arousal mechanism is sufficient to induce emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia.
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ABSTRACT: Historically, emergence from anesthesia was believed to progress only through the passive elimination of pharmacologic agents from the brain. However, recent studies indicate that anesthetic emergence may not simply be a process mirroring the induction of anesthesia. Several substances reduce the duration of anesthesia but not its induction time. Their action is not the result of a passive process, because they actively affect the kinetics of neurotransmitters or the endogenous sleep circuit to shorten anesthesia. The latest notable substance among this group of agents is methylphenidate, an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. Studies on emergence from anesthesia aim not only to stimulate scientific interest but also to improve the clinical course following general anesthesia, when patients sometimes experience life-threatening complications such as myocardial infarction, bronchial asthma, and cerebral hemorrhage. This review discusses recent advances in this field, focusing mainly on the role of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in anesthetic emergence.03/2013; 4(1):49-56. DOI:10.1007/s40140-013-0045-2
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ABSTRACT: This document reviews the literature on local brain manipulation of general anesthesia in animals, focusing on behavioral and electrographic effects related to hypnosis or loss of consciousness. Local inactivation or lesion of wake-active areas, such as locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, perifornical area, tuberomammillary nucleus, ventral tegmental area and basal forebrain, enhanced general anesthesia. Anesthesia enhancement was shown as a delayed emergence (recovery of righting reflex) from anesthesia or a decrease in the minimal alveolar concentration that induced loss of righting. Local activation of various wake-active areas, including pontis oralis and centromedial thalamus, promoted behavioral or electrographic arousal during maintained anesthesia and facilitated emergence. Lesion of the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic area resulted in increased wakefulness and decreased isoflurane sensitivity, but only for 6 days after lesion. Inactivation of any structure within limbic circuits involving the medial septum, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area, amygdala, entorhinal and piriform cortex delayed emergence from anesthesia, and often reduced anesthetic-induced behavioral excitation. In summary, the concept that anesthesia works on the sleep-wake system has received strong support from studies that inactivated/lesioned or activated wake-active areas, and weak support from studies that lesioned sleep-active areas. In addition to the conventional wake-sleep areas, limbic structures such as the medial septum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are also involved in the behavioral response to general anesthesia. We suggest that hypnosis during general anesthesia may result from disrupting the wake-active neuronal activities in multiple areas and suppressing an atropine-resistant cortical activation associated with movements.Progress in Neurobiology 11/2014; 122. DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2014.08.001 · 10.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The re-establishment of conscious awareness after discontinuing general anesthesia has often been assumed to be the inverse of loss of consciousness. This is despite the obvious asymmetry in the initiation and termination of natural sleep. In order to characterize the restoration of consciousness after surgery, we recorded frontal electroencephalograph (EEG) from 100 patients in the operating room during maintenance and emergence from general anesthesia. We have defined, for the first time, 4 steady-state patterns of anesthetic maintenance based on the relative EEG power in the slow-wave (<14 Hz) frequency bands that dominate sleep and anesthesia. Unlike single-drug experiments performed in healthy volunteers, we found that surgical patients exhibited greater electroencephalographic heterogeneity while re-establishing conscious awareness after drug discontinuation. Moreover, these emergence patterns could be broadly grouped according to the duration and rapidity of transitions amongst these slow-wave dominated brain states that precede awakening. Most patients progressed gradually from a pattern characterized by strong peaks of delta (0.5-4 Hz) and alpha/spindle (8-14 Hz) power ('Slow-Wave Anesthesia') to a state marked by low delta-spindle power ('Non Slow-Wave Anesthesia') before awakening. However, 31% of patients transitioned abruptly from Slow-Wave Anesthesia to waking; they were also more likely to express pain in the post-operative period. Our results, based on sleep-staging classification, provide the first systematized nomenclature for tracking brain states under general anesthesia from maintenance to emergence, and suggest that these transitions may correlate with post-operative outcomes such as pain.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106291. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106291 · 3.53 Impact Factor