Brain monoamines and antidepressant-like responses in MRL/MpJ versus C57BL/6J mice
ABSTRACT The MRL/MpJ mouse demonstrates enhanced wound healing and tissue regeneration and increased neurotrophic mobilization to chronic antidepressant drug treatments. This study compared brain monoamine systems between MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6J mice as a potential basis for strain differences after chronic antidepressant treatment. MRL/MpJ mice had significantly higher tissue levels of serotonin and dopamine in multiple brain regions. Microdialysis studies demonstrated that baseline levels of extracellular serotonin did not differ between strains. However, acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram produced an increase in extracellular serotonin in the ventral hippocampus of MRL/MpJ mice that was twice as large as achieved in C57BL/6J mice. The greater effects in MRL/MpJ mice on 5-HT levels were not maintained after local perfusion of citalopram, suggesting that mechanisms outside of the hippocampus were responsible for the greater effect of citalopram after systemic injection. The density of serotonin and norepinephrine transporters in the hippocampus was significantly higher in MRL/MpJ mice. In addition, the expression of 5-HT(1A) mRNA was lower in the hippocampus, 5-HT(1B) mRNA was higher in the hippocampus and brain stem and SERT mRNA was higher in the brain stem of MRL/MpJ mice. The exaggerated neurotransmitter release in MRL/MpJ mice was accompanied by reduced baseline immobility in the tail suspension test and a greater reduction of immobility produced by citalopram or the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. These data suggest that differences in the response to acute and chronic antidepressant treatments between the two strains could be attributed to differences in serotonin or catecholamine transmission.
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ABSTRACT: Retrodialysis, as used in neuropharmacological research, is a technique for in vivo delivery of neuroactive agents with concurrent monitoring of their effects on cellular activity with a certain degree of spatial and temporal resolution. Typically, this is accomplished either by the use of a liquid-switch requiring multiple pumps, or by exchange of flow tubing requiring stopping and restarting dialysis. In the present study, we describe the use of a medium pressure injection valve for retrodialysis that overcomes these problems. The valve was configured with a loop to deliver 20μL of solution, and artificial CSF flow from the pump to the probe was established via this device. The application of this setup was evaluated in urethane anesthetized adult male C57BL/6J mice prepared with a CMA 11 probe implanted in the ventral hippocampus. By switching between the load and inject positions, the loop was filled with escitalopram solution (0.3μM) and delivered at a rate of 1μL/min at the probe for retrodialysis. Escitalopram (2mg/kg BW) was administered subcutaneously for microdialysis studies. During these treatments, dialysate fractions were collected for the determination of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Irrespective of route of escitalopram administration, the pattern of dialysate 5-HT, and 5-HIAA response was comparable to that reported by other investigators. Accordingly, the in-line valve assembly did not compromise retrodialysis or microdialysis sampling. The manipulations to carry out retrodialysis using the valve setup are easy and simple. An in-line injection valve is a promising adaptation for retrodialysis studies and can be incorporated as a standard part of in vivo dialysis instrumentation.Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.vascn.2013.06.002 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death in the United States ADDIN EN.CITE CDC 2007 286 286 286 17 CDC Cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 2006. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 1157-61 56 44 2007 (CDC, 2007). Furthermore, a recent study found that less than 10% of quit attempts resulted in continuous abstinence for one yearADDIN EN.CITE ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Gonzales et al, 2006). With the introduction of pharmacotherapies like Chantix™ (varenicline), a selective α4β2 nicotinic partial agonist, successful quit attempts have significantly increased. Therefore, novel subtype-specific nicotinic drugs, such as sazetidine-A, present a rich area for investigation of therapeutic potential in smoking cessation. The present studies examine the anxiety-related behavioral and functional effects of the nicotinic partial agonists varenicline and sazetidine-A during withdrawal from chronic nicotine in mice. Our studies indicate that ventral hippocampal-specific infusions of sazetidine-A, but not varenicline, are efficacious in reducing nicotine withdrawal-related anxiety-like phenotypes in the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) paradigm. To further investigate functional differences between these partial agonists, we utilized voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) in ventral hippocampal slices to determine the effects of sazetidine-A and varenicline in animals chronically treated with saline, nicotine, or undergoing 24 h withdrawal. These studies demonstrate a functional dissociation of varenicline and sazetidine-A on hippocampal network activity, which is directly related to previous drug exposure. Furthermore, the effects of the nicotinic partial agonists in VSDi assays are significantly correlated to their behavioral effects in the NIH test. These findings highlight the importance of drug history in understanding the mechanisms through which nicotinic compounds may be aiding smoking cessation in individuals experiencing withdrawal-associated anxiety.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 29 April 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.105.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 04/2013; DOI:10.1038/npp.2013.105 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Addiction to nicotine and the ability to quit smoking are influenced by genetic factors. We used functional genomic approaches (chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and whole-genome sequencing) to identify cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) targets following chronic nicotine administration and withdrawal (WD) in rodents. We found that chronic nicotine and WD differentially modulate CREB binding to the gene for neuregulin 3 (NRG3). Quantitative analysis of saline, nicotine and nicotine WD in two biological replicates corroborate this finding, with NRG3 increases in both mRNA and protein following WD from chronic nicotine treatment. To translate these data for human relevance, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across NRG3 were examined for association with prospective smoking cessation among smokers of European ancestry treated with transdermal nicotine in two independent cohorts. Individual SNP and haplotype analysis support the association of NRG3 SNPs and smoking cessation success. NRG3 is a neural-enriched member of the epidermal growth factor family, and a specific ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4, which is also upregulated following nicotine treatment and WD. Mice with significantly reduced levels of NRG3 or pharmacological inhibition of ErbB4 show similar reductions in anxiety following nicotine WD compared with control animals, suggesting a role for NRG3 in nicotine dependence. Although the function of the SNP in NRG3 in humans is not known, these data suggest that Nrg3/ErbB4 signaling may be an important factor in nicotine dependence.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 September 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.104.Molecular Psychiatry 09/2013; 19(7). DOI:10.1038/mp.2013.104 · 15.15 Impact Factor