Cardiovascular Event Reduction Versus New-Onset Diabetes During Atorvastatin Therapy Effect of Baseline Risk Factors for Diabetes

Division of Cardiology, San Francisco General Hospital and the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Electronic address: .
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 11/2012; 61(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.09.042
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of new-onset diabetes (NOD) with cardiovascular (CV) event reduction at different levels of NOD risk. BACKGROUND: Statins reduce the number of CV events but increase the incidence of NOD. We previously reported that 4 factors independently predicted NOD: fasting blood glucose >100 mg/dl, fasting triglycerides >150 mg/dl, body mass index >30 kg/m(2), and history of hypertension. METHODS: We compared NOD incidence with CV event reduction among 15,056 patients with coronary disease but without diabetes at baseline in the TNT (Treating to New Targets) (n = 7,595) and IDEAL (Incremental Decrease in Endpoints Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering) (n = 7,461) trials. CV events included coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and resuscitated cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Among 8,825 patients with 0 to 1 of the aforementioned NOD risk factors at baseline, NOD developed in 142 of 4,407 patients in the atorvastatin 80 mg group and in 148 of 4,418 in the atorvastatin 10 mg and simvastatin 20 to 40 mg groups (3.22% vs. 3.35%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.77 to 1.22). Among the remaining 6,231 patients with 2 to 4 NOD risk factors, NOD developed in 448 of 3,128 in the atorvastatin 80 mg group and in 368 of 3,103 in the lower-dose groups (14.3% vs. 11.9%; HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.42; p = 0.0027). The number of CV events was significantly reduced with atorvastatin 80 mg in both NOD risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with lower-dose statin therapy, atorvastatin 80 mg/day did not increase the incidence of NOD in patients with 0 to 1 NOD risk factors but did, by 24%, among patients with 2 to 4 NOD risk factors. The number of CV events was significantly reduced with atorvastatin 80 mg in both NOD risk groups.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several trials and cohort studies have shown an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients using statins. Whether this only applies to patients at already high risk for the development of T2DM or for all patients is still a matter of debate. In the present prospective cohort study of 4,645 patients with established vascular disease without DM at baseline, 3,057 patients used statins at baseline, of whom 1,608 used intensive statin therapy, defined as statin therapy theoretically lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with ≥40%. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of incident T2DM with (intensive) statin therapy. Statin therapy was associated with increased risk of incident T2DM (hazard ratio 1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.32) when adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride levels. Intensive statin therapy tended to be related to a higher risk of T2DM compared with moderate statin therapy (hazard ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.61, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride levels). The increase in risk was regardless of the number of metabolic syndrome characteristics or insulin resistance but was particularly present in patients with low baseline glucose levels (<5.6 mmol/L; p for interaction 2.9 × 10(-7)). In conclusion, statin use increases the risk of incident T2DM in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. The increase in risk was independent of the number of metabolic syndrome criteria and was even more pronounced in patients with low baseline glucose levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.11.021 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Although there have been several reports that statins cause insulin resistance that leads to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, there has been no Japanese prospective studies investigating the effects of statins on the glucose metabolism system. Materials and methods Our subjects were 86 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes with hypercholesterolemia. Pitavastatin 2 mg/day was administered for 12 months and the lipid-related values, glucose metabolism values, and the presence/absence of side effects were investigated. Results None of these factors was found to differ between before and after administration of pitavastatin in overall analysis of all subjects. In subgroup analysis, fasting blood glucose showed a decrease in the BMI ≥ 25 group and there was a significant difference between the BMI < 25 and BMI ≥ 25 groups (P-values: 0.021 and 0.0036). Although HbA1c showed an increase both in the group switched to pitavastatin and the BMI < 25 group (P-values: 0.035 and 0.033) and HOMA-β showed a decrease in the BMI < 25 group (P-values: 0.044), there were no significant differences in changes between each divided group and their counterparts. Conclusion In the Japanese obese group with BMI ≥ 25, pitavastatin elicited a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose. It is not clear whether or not this is due to improved insulin resistance as a direct effect of pitavastatin, but in contrast to findings in Caucasians pitavastatin does not worsen insulin resistance in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by hypercholesterolemia.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 10/2014; 106(3). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.09.048 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Statins represent the elective lipid-lowering strategy in hyperlipidemic and high cardiovascular-risk patients. Despite excellent safety and tolerability, reversible muscle-related and dose-dependent adverse events may decrease a patient's compliance. Large meta-analyses, post-hoc and genetic studies showed that statins might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD), particularly in insulin-resistant, obese, old patients. Race, gender, concomitant medication, dose and treatment duration may also contribute to this effect. Based on this evidence, to warn against the possibility of statin-induced NOD or worsening glycemic control in patients with already established diabetes, FDA and EMA changed the labels of all the available statins in the USA and Europe. Recent meta-analyses and retrospective studies demonstrated that statins' diabetogenicity is a dose-related class effect, but the mechanism(s) is not understood. Among statins, only pravastatin and pitavastatin do not deteriorate glycemic parameters in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, available data, obtained in small-scale, retrospective or single-center clinical studies, document that pitavastatin, while ameliorating lipid profile, seems protective against NOD. Beyond differences in pharmacokinetics between pitavastatin and the other statins (higher oral bioavailability, lower hepatic uptake), its consistent increases in plasma adiponectin documented in clinical studies may be causally connected with its effect on glucose metabolism. Adiponectin is a protein with antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetogenic properties exerted on liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and pancreatic beta cells. Further studies are required to confirm this unique property of pitavastatin and to understand the mechanism(s) leading to this effect.
    Atherosclerosis Supplements 01/2015; 16. DOI:10.1016/S1567-5688(14)70002-9 · 9.67 Impact Factor