Substrate-Induced Control of Product Formation by Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1
ABSTRACT Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) aid in the regulation of many biological processes. Accurate control of PRMT activity includes recognition of specific arginyl groups within targeted proteins, and also the generation of the correct level of methylation, none of which are fully understood. The predominant PRMT in vivo, PRMT1, has wide substrate specificity and is capable of both mono- and dimethylation, which can induce distinct biological outputs. What regulates the specific methylation pattern of PRMT1 in vivo is unclear. We report that PRMT1 methylates a multisite peptide substrate in a non-stochastic manner, with less C-terminal preference, consistent with the methylation patterns observed in vivo. With a single targeted arginine, PRMT1 catalyzed the dimethylation in a semi-processive manner. The degree of processivity is regulated by substrate sequences. Our results identify a novel substrate-induced mechanism for modulating PRMT1 product specificity. Considering the numerous physiological PRMT1 substrates, as well as the distinct biological outputs of mono- and dimethylation products, such fine-tuned regulation would significantly contribute to the accurate product specificity of PRMT1 in vivo and the proper transmission of biochemical information.
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ABSTRACT: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a histone-modifying enzyme whose activity is aberrantly upregulated in various cancers and thereby contributes to a progrowth phenotype. Indeed, knockdown of PRMT5 leads to growth arrest and apoptosis, suggesting that inhibitors targeting this enzyme may have therapeutic utility in oncology. To aid the development of inhibitors targeting PRMT5, we initiated mechanistic studies geared to understand how PRMT5 selectively catalyzes the symmetric dimethylation of its substrates. Toward that end, we characterized the regiospecificity and processivity of bacterially expressed Caenorhabditis elegans PRMT5 (cPRMT5), insect cell-expressed human PRMT5 (hPRMT5), and human PRMT5 complexed with methylosome protein 50 (MEP50), i.e., the PRMT5·MEP50 complex. Our studies confirm that arginine 3 is the only site of methylation in both histone H4 and H4 tail peptide analogues and that sites distal to the site of methylation promote the efficient symmetric dimethylation of PRMT5 substrates by increasing the affinity of the monomethylated substrate for the enzyme. Additionally, we show for the first time that both cPRMT5 and the hPRMT5·MEP50 complex catalyze substrate dimethylation in a distributive manner, which is assisted by long-range interactions. Finally, our data confirm that MEP50 plays a key role in substrate recognition and activates PRMT5 activity by increasing its affinity for protein substrates. In total, our results suggest that it may be possible to allosterically inhibit PRMT5 by targeting binding pockets outside the active site.Biochemistry 12/2014; 53(50). DOI:10.1021/bi501279g · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a type III arginine methyltransferase which has been implicated in several biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, RNA splicing, cell differentiation and metastasis. PRMT7 is a unique but less characterized member of the family of PRMTs. The crystal structure of full-length PRMT7 from Mus musculus refined at 1.7 Å resolution is described. The PRMT7 structure is composed of two catalytic modules in tandem forming a pseudo-dimer and contains only one AdoHcy molecule bound to the N-terminal module. The high-resolution crystal structure presented here revealed several structural features showing that the second active site is frozen in an inactive state by a conserved zinc finger located at the junction between the two PRMT modules and by the collapse of two degenerated AdoMet-binding loops.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 09/2014; 70(9). DOI:10.1107/S1399004714014278 · 7.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Selenium is an essential micronutrient in humans due to the important roles of the selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. Organoselenium metabolites are generally found to be substrates for the biochemical pathways of their sulfur analogs, and the redox chemistry of selenomethionine and some other metabolites have been previously reported. We now report the first synthesis and characterization of Se-adenosylselenohomocysteine selenoxide (SeAHO) prepared via hydrogen peroxide oxidation of Se-adenosylselenohomocysteine. The selenoxide SeAHO, in contrast to its corresponding sulfoxide S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAHO), can form hydrate, has an electrostatic interaction between the α-amino acid moiety and the highly polar selenoxide functional group, and readily oxidizes glutathione (GSH) and cysteine thiols.Journal of Sulfur Chemistry 03/2015; 36(2). DOI:10.1080/17415993.2014.979173 · 0.82 Impact Factor