Is there utility in the transtheoretical model?
ABSTRACT The transtheoretical model is arguably the dominant model of health behaviour change, having received unprecedented research attention, yet it has simultaneously attracted exceptional criticism. However, the criticisms have been directed almost exclusively at the stages of change, just one of fourteen components of the transtheoretical model, which may have diverted attention away from more fruitful avenues of research based on the model.
The evidence would suggest some flaws in the concept of stages of change as currently articulated in the transtheoretical model. On a conceptual level, even studies incorporating the five stages of change point to a model that better fits Gollwitzer (1993) and Heckhausen's (1991) idea of a motivational phase followed by a volitional phase. Potentially the processes of change components of the transtheoretical model may actually prove the most useful, yet have been under-researched, at least experimentally. Three studies that successfully utilise the processes of change to reduce alcohol consumption, encourage smoking cessation and increase physical activity are described.
Elements of the transtheoretical model offer promise in developing effective health behaviour change interventions, but the question arises as to whether extracting these elements undermines completely the idea of a transtheoretical model.
SourceAvailable from: John C. Norcross[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fourteen different measures were investigated as predictors of change in smoking status for self-change efforts at smoking cessation. Adult subjects (N = 866) were classified into five stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse. Subjects were assessed on 10 change processes, self-efficacy, temptations to smoke, and their decisions weighing the advantages and disadvantages of smoking; and these 14 variables were used as predictors of change in smoking status 6 months later. Six significant functions were found which predicted movement for each of the stages. These predictors are both theoretical interest and practical significance because they may be modified in self-change efforts to overcome addictive behaviors. Overall, the change processes of self-reevaluation and the helping relationship and the self-efficacy and decisional balance variables were the most efficacious predictor variables. A general pattern emerged in which processes oriented more toward environmental events, such as dramatic relief and social liberation, tended to predict failure or no progress whereas more experientially oriented processes predicted progress.Addictive Behaviors 02/1985; 10(4-10):395-406. DOI:10.1016/0306-4603(85)90036-X · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinicians and researchers applying the transtheoretical model (J.O. Prochaska, C.C. DiClemente, & J.C. Norcross, 1992) to health promotion often assume that relationships of processes and stages observed in smoking cessation can be generalized to other problems. A reanalysis of 47 cross-sectional studies determined that use of change processes varies by stage, but the sequencing of processes is not consistent across health problems. In smoking cessation, cognitive processes were used in earlier stages than were behavioral processes. In exercise adoption and diet change, use of behavioral and cognitive processes increased together. Results for substance abuse and psychotherapy were less consistent. Substituting new behaviors, making a commitment, considering consequences, seeking information, controlling cues, and using rewards varied most by stage. Future longitudinal studies should assess these processes as potential mediators of lifestyle change.Health Psychology 11/2000; 19(6):593-604. DOI:10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.2063 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare the predictive validity of several measures of motivation to quit smoking among inpatients enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Data collected during face-to-face counseling sessions included a standard measure of motivation to quit (stage of readiness [Stage]: precontemplation, contemplation, or preparation) and four items with responses grouped in three categories: "How much do you want to quit smoking" (Want), "How likely is it that you will stay off cigarettes after you leave the hospital" (Likely), "Rate your confidence on a scale from 0 to 100 about successfully quitting in the next month" (Confidence), and a counselor assessment in response to the question, "How motivated is this patient to quit?" (Motivation). Patients were classified as nonsmokers if they reported not smoking at both the 6-month and 12-month interviews. All patients lost to follow-up were considered smokers. At 1 year, the smoking cessation rate was 22. 5%. Each measure of motivation to quit was independently associated with cessation ( p <.001) when added individually to an adjusted model. Likely was most closely associated with cessation and Stage was least. Likely had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio of 70.2%, 68.1%, 39.3%, 88.6%, and 2.2, respectively. The motivation of inpatient smokers to quit may be as easily and as accurately predicted with a single question as with the series of questions that are typically used.Journal of General Internal Medicine 02/2000; 15(1):16-23. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.11198.x · 3.42 Impact Factor