E-ISSN: 2087-3956Vol. 4, No. 2, Pp. 45-49
Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla
NEILESH SABLE, SWAPNIL GAIKWAD, SHITAL BONDE, ANIKET GADE, MAHENDRA RAI
1Department of Biotechnology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati-444602, Maharashtra India. Tel: +91-721-2662206 to 8, Fax: +91-721-
2662135, 2660949,email: email@example.com
Manuscript received: 20 June 2012. Revision accepted: 21 July 2012.
Abstract. Sable N, Gaikwad S, Bonde S, Gade A, Rai M. 2012. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla
verticilata. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 45-49. In the context of current drive to developed new green technology in nanomaterials,
synthesis of nanoparticles is of considerable importance. There has been considerable work done in the field of nanoscience and
Nanotechnology during the last decade due to the introduction of various protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles by using plants and
microorganisms. Here we firstly report the extracellular phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using aquatic plants Hydrilla
verticilata. The characterization of the phytosynthesized Ag-NPs was done with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, Nanoparticle
Tracking Analysis (NTA), Zeta potential and SEM. The SEM micrograph revealed the synthesis of polydispersed spherical
nanoparticles, with the average size of 65.55 nm. The phytofabricated Ag-NPs can be used in the field of medicine and agriculture, due
to their antimicrobial potential.
Key words: phytofabrication, Hydrilla, Ag-NPs, SEM, FTIR
Abstrak. Sable N, Gaikwad S, Bonde S, Gade A, Rai M. 2012. Fitofabrikasi nanopartikel perak menggunakan tumbuhan akuatik
Hydrilla verticilata. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 45-49. Dalam konteks mendorong pengembangan teknologi hijau yang baru pada
nanomaterial, sintesis nanopartikel sangat penting. Selama dekade terakhir terjadi perkembangan yang cukup pesat dalam bidang
nanosains dan nanoteknologi karena diperkenalkannya berbagai protokol untuk mensintesis nanopartikel menggunakan tumbuhan dan
mikroorganisme. Dalam penelitian ini, dilaporkan fitosintesis ekstraseluler nanopartikel perak (Ag-NP) menggunakan tumbuhan akuatik
Hydrilla verticilata untuk pertamakalinya. Karakterisasi Ag-NP yang difitosintesis dilakukan dengan bantuan spektroskopi UV-Vis,
FTIR, Analisis Pelacakan Nanopartikel (NTA), potensial Zeta dan SEM. Mikrograf SEM menunjukkan hasil sintesis nanopartikel
berbentuk bulat yang tersebar, dengan ukuran rata-rata 65,55 nm. Fitofabrikasi Ag-NP dapat dimanfaatkan dalam bidang kedokteran dan
pertanian, karena memiliki potensi antimikroba.
Kata kunci: fitofabrikasi, Hydrilla, Ag-NPs, SEM, FTIR
Nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in
scientific research, the development of its central concepts
happened over last decades. The development of
experimental procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles
of different chemical compositions, sizes, shapes, and
controlled polydispersity is vital for its advancement.
Currently, there is an ever-increasing need to develop
environmentally benign processes in the field of
nanoparticle synthesis, therefore focusing attention on
biological systems. Nanobiotechnology is combination
between nanotechnology and biology and which refers to
the ability to create and manipulate biological and
biochemical materials, devices, and systems at nano level
(Kholoud et al. 2010).
Different microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and
yeasts can be used as nanofactories for the biosynthesis of
nanoparticles. It has been shown that fungi are good
candidates for synthesis of metal and metal sulphides
nanoparticles, near about 20 different fungi has been
investigated for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles.
Verticillum sp. reduces metal ions into Au and Ag
oxysporum produces high stable gold, silver and platinum
nanoparticles (Mukherjee et al. 2002, Riddin et al. 2006).
Other reports of nanoparticles synthesis by fungi includes
by Aspergillus niger (Gade et al. 2008), Fusarium
acuminatum (Ingle et al. 2009).
But, plants as a system for synthesis of nanoparticles
are rapid and eco-friendly biosynthesis process. Plants are
used to synthesize Nanoparticles either intracellularly or
extracellularly (Bonde et al. 2012). Living plants
(Torresdey et al. 2002, 2003) are used for synthesis of gold
and silver nanoparticles, part of a plant like from geranium
leaf broth (Shivshankar et al. 2003, 2004, 2005) or by fruits
(Li et al. 2007) or even by sundried leaves (Huang et al.
2007).The rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using
different plant extracts of Pinus, Persimmon, Ginkgo,
Magnolia and Platanus were used and compared for their
extracellular metallic Ag-NPS synthesis (Song et al. 2008)
and the other reports of utilization of plant for the synthesis
et al. 2002).Fusarium
4 (2): 45-49, July 2012
of metal nanoparticle includes; Azadirachta indica (neem)
(Shankar et al. 2004), Aloe vera (Chandran et al. 2006),
Emblica officinalis (amla). (Amkamwar et al. 2005),
Capsicum annuum(Li et al. 2007),
camphora (Huang et al. 2007), Gliricidia sepium Jacq.
(Raut et al. 2009), Carrica papaya (Mude et al. 2009),
Opuntia ficus-indica (Gade et al. 2010), Murraya koenigii
(Bonde et al. 2012), Ocimum sanctum (Mallikarjum et al.
2011), Saururus chinenis
Foeniculum vulgare (Bonde 2011).
The phytofabrication (fabrication by plants) of Ag-NPs
from plant extracts has received some attention as a simple
and viable alternative to bacterial and fungal system, also
metal ions reduces much faster using plant system as
compare to microbes (Rai et al. 2008). The reduction of
metal ions is known to using enzyme extracted from the
plant extract, owing to this property the plant is selected for
bioreduction of silver ions in present study.
In the present study we have for the first time exploited
aquatic plants for the synthesis of Ag-NPs. The aquatic
weed Hydrilla verticilata was used for the synthesis of Ag-
NPs using1mM silver
characterization of the phytofabricated Ag-NPs were
carried out with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR,
NTA, Zeta Potential and SEM.
(Nagajyoti et al. 2011),
nitrate (AgNO3). The
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The 20 g Hydrilla verticilata (Figure 1) plant part was
washed 2-3 times with sterilized distilled water to avoid
any microbial contamination, and
then surface sterilized by HgCl2
(0.1%) for 1 min, cut into small
pieces and ground with 100 mL of
sterilized distilled water in an
omnimixer. Later, crude extract was
filtered through muslin cloth and
centrifuged at 10,000 g for 15 min to
obtain clear leaf extract which was
later used for the fabrication of Ag-
Fabrication of Ag-NPs
For the fabrication of Ag-NPs
extract was challenged with AgNO3
(1 mM) solution and incubated at
room temperature. Control (without
treatment with AgNO3) (1 mM) i.e
only extract) was also maintained.
Detection of Ag-NPs
In conical flask 99 mL of plant
filtrate was taken and 1 mL of
AgNO3(100 mM) was added into it
(final concentration becomes 1 mM).
After incubation of filtrate at room
temperature for 24 hrs the colour of filtrate changes from
light green to dark brown. This colour change indicates the
The preliminary detection of Ag-NPs was done with the
help of UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer,
Lambda 25) by scanning the absorbance spectra in the
range of 250-800 nm wavelengths.
Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
FTIR measurements of Ag-NPs synthesized from
Hydrilla verticilata was carried out on a Perkin-Elmer
FTIR Spectrophotometer in the range 450- 4000 cm-1at
resolution of 4cm-1. Scanning electron micrographs were
taken using a JEOL 6380A instrument. The samples were
fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde overnight at room
temperature. The dehydration of fixed samples were carried
out with gradient alcohol (10% to 95%), incubated for 20
min in each gradient and dipped in absolute alcohol for 2-5
min. The final specimen was prepared by placing a drop of
dehydrated sample on a glass slide followed by coating
with monolayer platinum for making the surface
NanoSight LM-20 analysis
Liquid sample of Ag-NPs at the concentration range of
107-109/mL were introduced into a scattering cell through
which a laser beam (approx. 40 mW at k = 635 nm) was
passed. Particles present within the path of the laser beam
were observed via a dedicated non- microscope optical
instrument (LM-20, NanoSight Pvt. Ltd., UK) having CCD
Figure 1. Hydrilla verticilata plant
SABLE et al. – Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Hydrilla verticilata
Figure 2. Control (left) and Ag-NPs (right) fabricated from Hydrilla verticilata
Figure 3. UV-Vis spectra of (A) leaf extract (control) and (B) Ag-NPs showing absorbance at about 428 nm.
Figure 4. FTIR spectrum for extract (control) and experimental after treatment with 1mM silver nitrate solution.
Figure 5. A. Particle size/concentration of Ag-NPs, B. Particle populations of Ag-NPs using NanoSight LM-20
Figure 6. Particle size distribution of Ag-NPs by intensity with Zeta Analyzer.
Figure 7. A. SEM micrograph of Ag-NPs (65.55 nm) (scale bar-100nm). B. A particle size distribution determined from the SEM
4 (2): 45-49, July 2012
camera. The motion of the particles in the field of view
(approx. 100 X 100 µm) was recorded (at 30 fps) and the
subsequent video and images were analyzed.
Particle size measurement
Particle sizing experiments were carried out by means
of laser diffractometry, using Zetasizer nano series
(Malvern). Measurements were taken in the range range
Scanning electron microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy of Ag-NPs was carried
out by fixation of 2.5% glutaraldehyde overnight at room
temperature. Then cell filtrate was dehydrated with
gradient alcohol (10% to 95%) and incubated for 20 min.
for each gradient. It was dipped in absolute alcohol for 2-5
min. A drop of dehydrated sample placed on glass slide (1
cm x 1 cm ). The sample was coated with monolayer
platinum. The slide was observed under scanning electron
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The change in colour of plant extract from light green
to dark brown when challenged against silver ions (1 mM
AgNO3) at room temperature. The colour change in the
extract was noted by visual observation (Figure 2). The
characterization of Ag-NPs fabrication was done by using
UV-visible spectrophotometer which confirms the presence
of the absorbance peak at 428 nm (Figure 3).
Further characterization was done by Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements to identify the
possible biomolecules responsible for the reduction of the
Ag+ions and capping of the bioreduced Ag-NPs by protein.
The amide linkages between amino acid residues in
proteins give rise to the well-known signatures in the
infrared region of the
(Basavaraja et al. 2007). FTIR spectrum showed peaks in
the range 1000-2000cm-1.
obtained nanoparticles manifest absorption peaks of
respective functional groups and indicated the presence of
stabilized protein molecules (Figure 4).
Nanoparticle Tracking and Analysis (NTA) was used to
measure the dispersion characteristics i.e. size and size
distribution. In particular, it is the most recently developed
system, NTA, was assessed in-depth due to its ability to see
and size of particles individually on a particle-by-particle
basis. NTA allows individual nanoparticles in a suspension
to be microscopically visualized and their brownian motion
to be separately but simultaneously analyzed and from
which the particle size distribution can be obtained on a
particle-by-particle basis (Figure 5A). The Figure 5b
showed particle populations by size and intensity. The
distribution data were mean 64 nm, mode 21 nm and
standard deviation 43 nm. This result corroborates the
results obtained by Montes-Burgos et al. 2010.
Particle size determination
nanoparticles was shown under different categories like
Representative spectra of
of the formulated
size distribution by volume, by intensity (Figure 6). The
average zeta potential of peak was found to be -40.1 mV,
area 100% and width 8.51 mV.
The formed Ag-NPs are well distributed with respect to
volume and intensity is an indication of the formation of
well built Ag-NPs and their monodispersity.
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study reveals the
synthesis of spherical polydispersed Ag-NPs in the reaction
mixtur e, which showed the spherical nanoparticles of size
of 65.55 nm (Figure 7A). The particle size histogram
showed average size of Ag-NPs (Figure 7B). Ag-NPs
analyzed in NTA and scanning electron microscopy
corroborates in their size.
It has been demonstrated that the extract of plant
Hydrilla verticilata is capable of fabricating Ag-NPs and
these Ag-NPs are quite stable in solution due to capping
likely by the proteins present in the extract. This is an
efficient, eco-friendly and simple process and more
efficient with appreciable control over size, composition
and even the shape of the nanoparticles. Ag-NPs have more
applications as antimicrobial agents.
Amkamwar B, Damle C, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2005. Biosynthesis of gold
and silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract, their
phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution. J Nanosci
Nanotechnol 5: 1665-1671.
Basavaraja S, Vijayanand H, Venkataraman A, Deshpande UP, Shripathi
T. 2007. Characterization
Synthesized Through Self-Propagating Combustion Route. Synth.
React. Inorg. Met-Org. NanoMetal Chem 37: 409
Bonde SR. 2011. A biogenic approach for green synthesis of silver
nanoparticles using extract of Foeniculum vulgare and its activity
against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Bioscience 3(2): 59-63.
Bonde SR, Rathod DP, Ingle AP, Ade RB, Gade AK, Rai MK. 2012.
Murraya koenigii Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Its
Activity against Three Human Pathogenic Bacteria. Nanoscience
Methods 1: 25-36.
Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2006.
Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanotriangles using Aloe
vera plant extract. Biotech Prog 22: 577-579
Gade AK, Gaikwad SC, Tiwari V, Yadav A, Ingle AP, Rai MK. 2010.
Biofabrication of silver nanoparticles by Opuntia ficus-indica: In vitro
antibacterial activity and study of the mechanism involved in the
synthesis. Curr Nanosci 6: 370-375.
Gade AK, Bonde P, Ingle AP, Marcato PD, Durán N, Rai MK. 2008.
Exploitation ofAspergillus niger
Nanoparticles. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy 2 (3):
Gardea-Torresdey JL, Gómez E, Peralta-Videa JR, Parsons JG, Troiani
H, Jose-Yacaman M. 2003. Alfalfa sprouts: a natural source for the
synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Langmuir 19 (4): 1357-1361.
Gardea-Torresdey JL, Parson JG, Gomez E, Peralta-Videa J, Troiani HE,
Santiago P, Yacaman MJ. 2002. Formation and growth of Au
nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants. Nano Letters 2 (4): 397-401.
Huang J, Li Q, Sun D, Lu Y, Su Y, Yang X,Wang H, Wang Y, Shao W,
He N,Hong J, Chen C. 2007. Biosynthesis of silver and gold
nanoparticles by novel sundried
for Synthesis of Silver
Cinnamomum camphora leaf.
SABLE et al. – Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Hydrilla verticilata Download full-text
Ingle A, Gade A, Pierrat S, Sonnichsen C, Rai M. 2008. Mycosynthesis of
silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium acuminatum and its
activity against some human pathogenic bacteria. Curr Nanosci
Kholoud MM, El-Nour A, Eftaiha A, Abdulrhman AQ, Ammar AA. 2010.
Synthesis and applications of silver nanoparticles. Arabian J Chem
Li S, Qui L, Shen Y, Xie A, Yu X, Zhang L, Zhang Q. 2007. Green
synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Capsicum annum L. extract.
Green Chem 9: 852-858.
Li Y, Leung P, Song QW, Newton E. 2006. Antimicrobial effects of
surgical masks coated with 869 nanoparticles. J Hosp Infect 62:58-63.
Mallikarjun K, Narsimha G, Dillip GR, Praveen B, Shreedhar B, Lakshmi
S, Reddy VS, Raju DP. 2011. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles
using Ocimum leaf extract and their characterization. Digest J
Nanomat Biostruct 6 (1): 181-186.
Mandal D, Bolander ME, Mukhopadhyay D, Sarkar G, Mukherjee P.
2006. The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal
nanoparticles and their application. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
Montes-Burgos I, Walczyk D, Hole P, Smith J, Lynch I, Dawson K..
2010. Characterisation of nanoparticle size and state prior to
nanotoxicological studies. J Nanopart Res. 12:47-53.
Mude N, Ingle A, Gade A, Rai M. 2009. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles
using callus extract of Carica papaya-A first report. J Pl Biochem
Biotechnol 18: 83-86.
Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Kumar R,
Sastry M. 2002. Extracellular biosynthesis of bimetallic Au-Ag alloy
nanoparticles. Chem. Biochem 3:461-463.
Nagajyoti PC, Prasad TN, Shreekanth VM, Lee KD. 2011. Biofabrication
of silver nanoparticles using leaf of Saururus chinenis. Digest J
Nanomat Biostruct 6 (1): 121-133.
Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A. 2008. Current trends in phytosynthesis of metal
nanoparticles. Crit Rev Biotechnol 28(4):277-284.
Raut RW, Lakkakula JR, Kolekar NS, Mendhulkar VD, Kashid SB. 2009.
Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticle using Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.).
Curr Nanosci 5: 117-122.
Riddin TL, Gericke M, Whiteley CG. 2006. Analysis of the inter- and
extracellular formation of platinum nanoparticles by Fusarium
oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using response surface methodology.
Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry MJ. 2004). Rapid synthesis of Au,
Ag, and bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem
(Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 275: 496-502.
Shivshankar S, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2003. Geranium leaf assisted
biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Biotechnol Prog 19:1627-1631.
Shivshankar S, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2004. Rapid synthesis of Au,
Ag, and bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem
(Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:496-502.
Shivshankar S, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2005. Controlling the optical
properties of lemongrass extract synthesized gold nanotriangles and
potential application in infrared-absorbing optical coatings. Chem.
Song JY, Beom SK. 2008. Rapid biological synthesis of silver
nanoparticles using plant leaf extracts. Bioproc Biosyst Engineer 32