"It is moderately absorbed (23-47%) at the gastrointestinal tract. The maximum plasma concentration is achieved at 1-2h after oral dosing of milk thistle extract in human (Polyak et al., 2013). Silymarin is primarily excreted through the bile while some are cleared via the kidneys with a clearance half-life of 6-8 hours. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic and occasional drug-resistant influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop novel anti-influenza therapeutics. Here we report computational and experimental efforts to identify influenza neuraminidase inhibitors from among the 3000 natural compounds in the Malaysian-Plants Natural-Product (NADI) database. These 3000 compounds were first docked into the neuraminidase active site. The five plants with the largest number of top predicted ligands were selected for experimental evaluation. Twelve specific compounds isolated from these five plants were shown to inhibit neuraminidase, including two compounds with IC50 values less than 92 μM. Furthermore, four of the twelve isolated compounds had also been identified in the top 100 compounds from the virtual screen. Together, these results suggest an effective new approach for identifying bioactive plant species that will further the identification of new pharmacologically active compounds from diverse natural-product resources.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 01/2015; 55(2). DOI:10.1021/ci500405g · 4.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An estimated 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which is characterized histologically by a persistent immune and inflammatory response that fails to clear HCV from hepatocytes. This response is recruited to the liver in part by the chemokine CXCL10, the serum and intrahepatic levels of which have been inversely linked to the outcome of interferon (IFN)-based therapies for hepatitis C. Bystander tissue damage from this ineffective response is thought to lead to increased hepatocyte turnover and the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, CXCL10 is traditionally viewed as an orchestrator of the angiostatic and anti-tumor immune response. In this review, we will explore this duality and the pathways by which CXCL10 is produced by hepatocytes during HCV infection, its effects on resident and infiltrating immune cells, and how deregulation of these cell populations within the liver may lead to chronic liver inflammation. We will also discuss potential host-directed therapies to slow or reverse HCV-induced inflammation that leads to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2013; 19(6). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0928 · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silymarin, an extract of the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is used as an herbal remedy, particularly for hepatoprotection. The main chemical constituents in silymarin are seven flavonolignans. Recent studies explored the non-selective methylation of one flavonolignan, silybin B, and then tested those analogues for cytotoxicity and inhibition of both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 activity in human liver microsomes and hepatitis C virus infection in a human hepatoma (Huh7.5.1) cell line. In general, enhanced bioactivity was observed with the analogues. To further probe the biological consequences of methylation of the seven major flavonolignans, a series of 7-O-methylflavonolignans were generated. Optimization of the reaction conditions permitted selective methylation at the phenol in the 7-position in the presence of each metabolite's 4-5 other phenolic and/or alcoholic positions without the use of protecting groups. These 7-O-methylated analogues, in parallel with the corresponding parent compounds, were evaluated for cytotoxicity against Huh7.5.1 cells; in all cases the monomethylated analogues were more cytotoxic than the parent compounds. Moreover, parent compounds that were relatively non-toxic and inactive or weak inhibitors of hepatitis C virus infection had enhanced cytotoxicity and anti-HCV activity upon 7-O-methylation. Also, the compounds were tested for inhibition of major drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2C9, CYP3A4/5, UDP-glucuronsyltransferases) in pooled human liver or intestinal microsomes. Methylation of flavonolignans differentially modified inhibitory potency, with compounds demonstrating both increased and decreased potency depending upon the compound tested and the enzyme system investigated. In total, these data indicated that monomethylation modulates the cytotoxic, antiviral, and drug interaction potential of silymarin flavonolignans.
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