Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas With Sex Cord Differentiation Are Associated With PHF1 Rearrangement.
ABSTRACT Endometrial stromal tumors may pose diagnostic challenges particularly when they exhibit variant histologic appearances, involve extrauterine sites, or present as metastatic disease. In such cases, use of immunohistochemical markers and identification of specific nonrandom chromosomal rearrangements may be helpful. Over the last decade, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been progressively incorporated as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of endometrial stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to review a series of these tumors and compare the results of FISH analysis with the clinicopathologic characteristics. Three endometrial stromal nodules (ESNs), 13 endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs), and 7 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs) were reviewed. Three metastases from 1 of the ESS cases were also analyzed. Nine of these tumors (1 ESN, 8 ESSs, and 1 UES) exhibited unusual histologic features, including smooth muscle (3), sex cord (7), epithelioid (1), fibromyxoid (1), and skeletal muscle (2) differentiation. A tissue microarray was prepared, and FISH analysis was performed using break-apart and fusion probes for JAZF1, SUZ12, EPC1, and PHF1 genes. FISH was successful in 22 cases, and rearrangements involving JAZF1, SUZ12, EPC1, and PHF1 genes were detected in 10 of the 22 (45%) uterine tumors, including 2 of the 3 ESNs and 8 of 12 ESSs. Genetic rearrangements were found neither in the 3 metastases of the ESS nor in any of the UESs. It is noteworthy that a correlation between sex cord differentiation and PHF1 rearrangement was encountered in ESSs (P=0.008). In our series, all ESSs showing sex cords had PHF1 genetic rearrangement, suggesting that such rearrangements may induce sex cord differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins form chromatin-binding complexes with histone-modifying activity. The two main PcG repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) studied are generally associated with chromatin in its repressed state. PRC2 is responsible for the methylation of histone H3 at the lysine 27 (H3K27me3), an epigenetic mark that is linked with numerous biological processes, including development, adult homeostasis and cancer. The core canonical PRC2 complex, which contains the EZH1/2, SUZ12 and EED proteins, can be extended and functionally manipulated through its interactions with several other proteins. In this review we will focus on these PRC2-associated proteins.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEBS Journal 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/febs.13083 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Uterine tumors with sex cord-like elements are divided in two groups; uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT), and endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE). UTROSCT is currently defined as the neoplasm predominantly or exclusively composed of sex cord-like elements, and generally behaves in a benign fashion. We studied two unusual cases of UTROSCT with metastasis. One case was a 38-year-old multiparous woman presented with hypermenorrhea. The tumor grew as an intramural mass, and metastasized to a pelvic lymph node. Another case was a 57-year-old woman presented with genital bleeding. The tumor grew as a submucosal exophytic mass, and metastasized to the epiploic appendix. Microscopic examination of the 2 cases revealed that they were composed of sex cord-like cells, epithelioid cells and spindle cells. They exhibited solid pattern in predominance. Both solid and sex cord-like elements showed similar immunoreactivities for more than 3 sex cord markers, but simultaneously showed different staining patterns for some other markers. Characteristic features of endometrial stroma such as tongue-like infiltration and spiral arteries-like arterioles were not observed. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the absence of JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion, supporting the histopathological diagnosis of UTROSCT rather than ESTSCLE. The current cases warned the potential risk of UTROSCT whose biological behavior is still uncertain. We discuss histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of UTROSCT with metastasis.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2014; 7(3):1051-9. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The existence of a "high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma" category of tumors has been a controversial subject owing to, among other things, the difficulty in establishing consistent diagnostic criteria. Currently, the recommended classification for such tumors is undifferentiated uterine/endometrial sarcoma. Interest in this subject has recently increased markedly with the identification of recurrent molecular genetic abnormalities. At Mayo Clinic, a group of neoplasms has been observed that morphologically resemble, either cytologically or architecturally, classic "low-grade" endometrial stromal sarcoma but feature obvious deviations, specifically, 17 tumors with unequivocally high-grade morphology. These high-grade tumors displayed 3 morphologic themes: (1) tumors with a component that is identical to low-grade ESS that transitions abruptly into an obviously higher-grade component; (2) tumors composed exclusively of high-grade cells with uniform nuclear features but with a permeative pattern of infiltration; (3) tumors similar to the second group but with a different, yet characteristic, cytomorphology featuring enlarged round to ovoid cells (larger than those found in low-grade ESS) with smooth nuclear membranes and distinct chromatin clearing but lacking prominent nucleoli. We collected clinicopathologic data, applied immunohistochemical studies, and also tested tumors by fluorescence in situ hybridization for abnormalities in JAZF1, PHF1, YWHAE, and CCND1. Tumors from these 3 groups were found to be immunohistochemically and genetically distinct from one another. Most notable was the fact that category 3 contained all the cases that tested positive for YWHAE rearrangement, did not show any classic translocations for JAZF1, PHF1, or CCND1, often presented at a high stage, and behaved aggressively. This study demonstrates the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic heterogeneity that exists within "undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas" as currently defined and lends credence to the effort of subclassifying some tumors as truly "high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas." Our study also shows that, in the context of undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas, recognition of cytomorphologic features on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections may be used to select tumors with specific molecular genetic changes-that is, translocations involving YWHAE. Our conclusions will help further efforts towards proper sub-classification of these tumors which will aid in diagnosis and potentially affect clinical management.