Real-time situation awareness assessment in critical illness management: adapting the situation present assessment method to clinical simulation
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Situation awareness (SA) is a human factor of critical importance to patient safety. Simulation training aims to examine and debrief human factors; however, SA cannot be directly observed. This has led to the development of SA measurement tools. The Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) measures SA in real-time without the need to pause the scenario. The SPAM process involves the delivery of queries to the participant who must answer them accurately and quickly. The latency between the query being asked and answer being received represents SA. METHOD: Two query delivery procedures are described in the literature: query delivery by telephone and in person. These procedures were piloted in simulation teaching with final-year medical students. The scenarios were videotaped and reviewed by the investigators to evaluate each procedure.Our evaluation of the existing SPAM procedures led us to adapt the method by developing a bespoke application, which delivers queries via a personal digital assistant (PDA), calculates the latency data and presents it to the instructor. RESULTS: Presented by telephone, queries tended to disrupt the 'flow' of the simulation. The 'in person' procedure was not disruptive; however, participants found it difficult to distinguish queries from other dialogue. The PDA represented a compromise between these two techniques: generating data without disrupting the scenario. CONCLUSIONS: The use of SPAM is feasible in clinical simulation. By using handheld technology, SA data are made available to the instructor for use in debrief; this expands the utility of SPAM to the field of medical education.
- SourceAvailable from: Brett WilliamsOpen Access Emergency Medicine 01/2013; DOI:10.2147/OAEM.S53021
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ABSTRACT: Qualitative research methods are a group of techniques designed to allow the researcher to understand phenomena in their natural setting. A wide range is used, including focus groups, interviews, observation, and discourse analysis techniques, which may be used within research approaches such as grounded theory or ethnography. Qualitative studies in the anaesthetic setting have been used to define excellence in anaesthesia, explore the reasons behind drug errors, investigate the acquisition of expertise and examine incentives for hand-hygiene in the operating theatre. Understanding how and why people act the way they do is essential for the advancement of anaesthetic practice, and rigorous, well-designed qualitative research can generate useful data and important insights. Meticulous social scientific methods, transparency, reproducibility and reflexivity are markers of quality in qualitative research. Tools such as the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research checklist and the critical appraisal skills programme are available to help authors, reviewers and readers unfamiliar with qualitative research assess its merits.Anaesthesia 03/2014; 69(3):270-80. DOI:10.1111/anae.12517 · 3.85 Impact Factor