Basics of cytology.
ABSTRACT This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material.
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ABSTRACT: Results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of solid-tissue neoplasms arising in the periocular glands are infrequently reported in the literature. To our knowledge, no previous series relating to this topic exist. Neoplastic processes that arise in the semiconfined area of the orbit behave as space-occupying lesions. Such lesions can exert significant pressure on the globe, be responsible for altered vision, and result in proptosis. When noninvasive techniques fail to confirm or rule out the suspicion of a neoplastic lacrimal or adnexal lesion, FNA may be of use in establishing a diagnosis in an efficient, reliable, timely, cost-effective, and safe manner. During the 14-yr interval from 1986-1999, 77 orbital/ocular needle aspiration biopsies were conducted by staff ophthalmologists at Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Review of the diagnoses for these specimens revealed seven primary solid-tissue lesions of the lacrimal gland and other adnexal glands, all arising in adult patients (age range, 45-92 yr; mean age, 74 yr). Primary lacrimal and adnexal gland neoplasms were found to represent approximately 9% of orbital fine-needle aspirations (7/79). The 7 cases included 3 lacrimal gland lesions diagnosed as benign mixed tumors, 3 lesions diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland, and 1 tumor diagnosed as sebaceous carcinoma of the meibomian holocrine glands. Cytologic diagnoses were rendered using standard criteria for salivary gland-type tumors. Tissue confirmation was available from surgical follow-up in 4 of the 7 cases, with 100% correlation. Although primary neoplasms of the lacrimal gland and glands of the eyelids are rare, accurate diagnoses of such lesions may be established with minimally invasive aspiration techniques. Preoperative aspiration biopsy diagnoses provide a great advantage to ophthalmic surgeons who routinely operate in a conservative fashion in an area of the body requiring great attention to cosmesis. Our experience indicates that FNA is a reliable and effective tool in the diagnosis and management of primary lacrimal and ocular adnexal tumors.Diagnostic Cytopathology 03/2001; 24(2):86-9. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS FNA) of pancreatic cysts is considered safe, however, data are conflicting regarding complication rates. The aim of this study was to determine the complication rate of EUS-guided pancreatic cyst aspiration and predictors of these complications. Results of pancreatic cyst EUS FNA at 2 academic institutions from March 1996 to October 2003 were reviewed. A total of 603 patients with 651 pancreatic cysts were evaluated. Complications were identified from clinic, emergency department, and discharge notes, and laboratory and radiologic data. Data collected were as follows: cyst size, location, septations, diagnosis, number of passes, needle size, status as inpatient or outpatient, performance of same-day endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and use of prophylactic antibiotics. Complications were identified in 13 patients (2.2%, 13 of 603): 6 patients had pancreatitis, 4 patients had abdominal pain, 1 patient had a retroperitoneal bleed, 1 patient had an infection, and 1 patient had bradycardia. Twelve patients required hospitalization, with an average length of stay of 3.8 +/- 1.1 days. Type of cyst, size, presence of septations or mass, and same-day ERCP were not predictors of complications. EUS-guided pancreatic cyst aspiration carries a low complication rate similar to that reported for solid pancreatic lesions. No patient or cyst characteristics appear to be predictive of adverse events.Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2005; 3(3):231-6. · 6.53 Impact Factor
- Monographs in pathology 02/1997;